Showing posts with label Techniques Photo Shop. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Techniques Photo Shop. Show all posts

Monday, July 30, 2012

PS-90A Turbofan Engine Technology

PS-90A Turbofan Engine. The PS-90 turbofan engine features a twoshaft configuration with exhaust mixing from both ducts. It has a reverser inside the bypass duct. The engine comprises 11 modules. The
single-stage fan has titanium blades. The lowpressure compressor has two stages, and the high-pressure compressor has 13 stages. The engine has a cannular combustion chamber. The cooled high-pressure turbine has two stages, and the low-pressure turbine has four stages. The engine has a two-channel digital
control system. Advanced control and monitoring system provides timely engine malfunction
detection and on-condition maintenance.

PS-90A Turbofan Engine

The unified PS-90A engine is designed to power the Tu-204, Tu-214, Tu-330, Il-76MF, Il-76T/TD, and Il-96-300 aircraft. In 1992 the engine got the Interstate Aviation Committee and ICAO noise and emission certificates. Introduction of more stringent ICAO requirements will not pose a problem for PS-90A-powered aircraft as only minor upgrading of the standard engine and air intake noise-absorption
system will be required.

The PS-90A-76 derivative has an extended service life and improved acoustic and emission characteristics. It is designed to power the Il-76MF aircraft, and can also be installed on the Il-76T/TD and Il-86 aircraft. The PS-90A2 derivative boasts enhanced reliability, improved efficiency, and simplified maintenance.

Il-76MF aircraft

PS-90A Turbofan Engine Specifications
                                                                       PS-90A                           PS-90A2
Thrust, kgf:
take-off mode (H=0, M=0, ISA)                 16,000                             16,000
cruising mode
(H=11,000 m, V=850 km/h)                        3,500                               3,700
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kgf/h
cruising mode (H=11,000,
V=850 km/h)                                                0.595                                 0.595
Air consumption, kg/sec 470 470
Dimensions, mm:
fan diameter                                                1,900                                  1,900
length 5,333 4,964
Engine dry weight, kg                                2,950                                    2,950

Thursday, February 16, 2012


Thursday, November 4, 2010

Tutorial And Study Photo Shop Basic Techniques Adding Texture

Adding Texture Techniques Photo Shop

Bitmaps dont's always  have to look flat. Introducing “Grotto”, a character made almost entirely of bitmap fills and some carefully placed Flash gradients to provide the illusion of form, volume and, most
of all, texture. Here we’ll look at how to give otherwise flat bitmap textures a bit more depth using some basic
gradients and alpha.


 1. The first step is to create your texture in Adobe Photoshop, import it into Flash, break it apart and then select it with the Eyedropper tooli. I created the shape for Grotto’s body with the paint brush and the bitmap swatch as my fill “color”. Select the body shape and convert it to a graphic symbol.

2. Edit the symbol by adding another layer above the shape layer. Copy C ctrl C and paste in place CSv
LSvthe body shape into this new layer. Fill it with a radial gradient with two colors; black with about 30% alpha and black with 0% alpha.

3. The mouth/lip symbol was made the same way by layering a radial gradient over the bitmap fill shape. Use
the Fill Transform tool to position the gradient so it forms a shadow along the bottom half of the shape.
4. Sometimes the devil is in the details, which is evident here with the additon of some subtle highlights to the lip. On a new layer use the Brush tool to paint some shapes and then fill them with a linear gradient containing 30% white to 0% white. Use the Fill Transform tool fto edit the gradient as necessary.
 5. The nostril is another example of layering various gradients over the original shape containing the bitmap
fill. Here I used a linear gradient for the inner nostril shape and a radial gradient to provide some shading for a more realistic effect.

 6. When all these subtle details are combined, they can add up to a very sophisticated image. The shapes that
make up Grotto are simple yet convincing simply by layering some basic gradients over our textures.
 Tip :
You may also want to adjust the properties of the imported bitmap (doubleclick the bitmap icon in the document library) and select “Apply Smoothing”. This will apply anti-aliasing to your image and make it appear smoother.

Monday, November 1, 2010

Tutorial Photo Shop Logo And Symbol 5D Animation

Sync Animation Photo Shop
One Day Client Asks for you to animate their company’s character logo across their website splash page. You use several keyframes and motion tweens to animate their character (nested inside a symbol) along a motion guide and deliver the final version to your client and await their feedback. Unfortunately the client changes their mind and asks if you could change the bee character to a dog with a jet pack instead.

Do you have to do the entire animation over again? No, because you can always swap out the bee symbol for another symbol. But you have to swap out each instance of the bee for every keyframe you made in the animation. What a drag! The more keyframes on the timeline, the more monotonous and frustrating this task can be. Sync to the rescue!

Way :

1. Let’s start with a simple animation involving a nested character animation in a graphic symbol motion tweened along a guided path. Apply the motion tween using the Tween drop-down menu in the Properties panel so that the Sync option will be turned on by default. Nothing too complex going on here. The bee symbol contains some nested animations (wings flapping, eye movements and the bee sneezing).

 2. Insert a keyframe somewhere in the motion tween. Use the Free Transform tool O to rotate the symbol. Feel free to scale or skew the symbol as well. Because the first keyframe is “Synced”, all subsequent keyframes will have Sync turned on by default as well.

3. Continue to insert keyframes every few frames and transform your symbol by rotating and scaling. The idea
here is to make this simple motion tween relatively complex for the example purposes.

4. You just about finish the animation when the phone rings and your client informs you that they want to change the bee to a totally different character. Thanks to Sync, your time and hard work will not be wasted. Go to File > Import > Open External Library and navigate to an FLA containing the replacement symbol and click Open. A new Library panel will open displaying the symbols and assets contained in the selected FLA. Click and drag the preferred symbol from the external Library to the Library of your current document.

5. Select the bee character in the first frame of your motion tween. In the Properties panel click the Swap button and locate the new symbol you just added to your Library and click OK.

6. Since every keyframe in the motion tween has the Sync option selected, your entire animation will be updated across all keyframes. Crisis averted, go and make yourself another cup of coffee, catch up on your email overflow and get back to your client in a little while. Make sure to sound out of breath when you call them to tell them the changes have been made (just kidding).

Tutorial And Techniques Photo Shop 5D Animation

Hinging Body Part 5D Animation

Surpringsingly, flash lacks what most animators consider a “must-have” animation feature:
Inverse Kinematics. IK is a feature commonly found in 3D and in a handful of 2D animation programs. This feature allows for parent-child linkage relationships and articulation between objects. So how can we simulate IK in Flash? Once again it is the Free Transform tool to our rescue but keep in mind, this is not truly an IK solution. With Free Transform we can edit the center point of a symbol instance, thus editing the point on which the symbol rotates or “hinges” itself. Any simulation to IK is purely coincidental.

Way :
 1. Select the Free Transform tool O and then click on one of your symbols on your stage. The center point of the symbol is now represented by a solid white circle. Simply click and drag this circle to a new location. In my example, I moved the center point of the arm to where the shoulder is (approximately).

2. With the same tool rotate the arm symbol. It will “hinge” based on its new center point, making it easier
to position each arm movement in relation to the body symbol.

3. Repeat this process for each body part you want hinged. As you can see I even hinged the ear symbol as
well. Now you can start animating by creating additional keyframes and apply motion tweens throughout your

4. You can select multiple symbols across multiple layers and hinge them as if they were one single object. With the Free Transform tool still selected, hold down the Shift key and click on multiple symbols on the stage. The center point will now be relative to the center point of all the symbols selected.

5. This can be very useful for hinging the head of a character which may contain multiple symbols (eyes, mouth, nose, hair, etc.).

 6. The center point for each individual symbol will be retained but the center point representing multiple selected symbols will not be remembered once they are deselected.

Tips :
To select multiple objects, it is often easier to click and drag with the Selection tool across the objects on
stage. Make sure you set the center point for each symbol on frame 1 of your timeline. If the center point is different between keyframes where a motion tween is applied, your symbol will “drift” unexpectedly.
If not clear please Klick Titel Logo and Symbol Animation

Sunday, October 31, 2010

Adding Texture Photo Shop CS3 - CS5 Tutorial

Adding Texture Photo Shop

 Bitmaps can be a very effective way to add texture to your designs. Since any image could be a potential texture, the possibilities are endless. For this frog character, I wanted a slightly more sophisticated look while still maintaining a cartoon feel. Instead of using solid color fills and some spot color shading, the use of imported bitmap textures added that extra sense of depth and richness.

Way Adding Texture Photo Shop:

1. The first task is to design your textures. A digital camera is a very handy device for this purpose. Take a walk around your neighborhood and you’ll quickly find an unlimited supply of interesting textures that can be used for your designs. Use Photoshop to adjust the color, add filters and crop your images. Remember to keep the image small enough for web output.

Step 2
 2. Select the imported bitmap and break it apart B ctrl B . Click on it using the Eyedropper tool. It will now be added to the Color Mixer as a swatch.

3. Using the Brush tool, draw your shapes using the bitmap as the fill color.

4. You can use the Bucket tool to fill your shapes with the different bitmaps you imported, broke apart and picked with the eyedropper.

5. Most likely the bitmap fill will need to be scaled, rotated or repositioned. Select the Free Transform toolf, and edit your fill using the various handles around the bounding box.

6. The final step is to convert all parts to symbols and add a slight amount of dark tint to the instances behind the character. This helps separate similar bitmap textures from each other and adds a touch of depth.

Tutorial Basic Shadows Photo Shop CS3 And CS5

Shadows Can Add depth to Your Project Photo Shop CS3 Step By Step Tutorial. 

This is the most basic way to add a shadow to an animated character. Its simplicity does have its limitations, however. In this chapter you will learn more advanced shadow techniques with greater flexibility but some may not be supported in older versions of the Flash player. Depending on your target audience and your client’s technical requirements, you may need a technique that will allow you to publish to older player versions. This is one such technique.

1. For the best result, place your character animation inside a symbol - this is commonly referred to as “nesting”. The next step is to simply copy the symbol of your character using C ctrl C. Create a new layer and move it below the character layer. Paste the copy of the symbol using V ctrl V into this new layer.

2. Next, apply a tint to the symbol instance you just pasted. The tint needs to have a strength of 100% to completely hide the character’s details. The color of the tint should also be a darker color value than the background.

3.Position the shadow instance and with the Free Transform tool, scale it vertically to suggest some perspective of it being cast against the ground. 

4. With the Free Transform tool qstill selected, click and drag horizontally outside the bounding box in between the handles to skew the shadow.

5. You may want to scale your shadow slightly smaller to suggest more depth. Play around with its position relative to the original character for the best results. Because the shadow symbol is a duplicate of the original animated character symbol, it will also animate in sync with the character. This will result in a convincing shadow effect. Since you have not used any special filters, this shadow effect is supported by all versions of the Flash Player.

Mixing Colour Photo Shop CS3 And CS5 Tutorial

Mixing Colour Techniques Photo Shop CS3 Tutorial

Color Is Power Full  It can be used in a variety of ways to suggest the tone of your graphic design or mood of an entire animated scene. Let’s take a look at how to adjust color values using the Color Mixer’s HSB sliders. Using the drop-down menu, change the color mode from RGB to HSB. Now the sliders next to each swatch can be used to adjust your colors based on their hue, saturation and brightness.

 1. You can convert your colors to gray scale by picking the colors with the Eyedropper tool and then dragging the saturation slider all the way down to 0%. This will lower the saturation but maintain its hue and brightness.

2.  Change the hue of your colors by adjusting the amount of hue with the slider. You can also type the value
directly into the percentage field if you prefer. If you have several colors to adjust, select the numerical value and copy it to your clipboard. To adjust additional colors all you need to do is select them and paste in the color value.

3. Here’s another example where the hue for each color has been easily adjusted using the hue color value.
This technique can be very effective for providing an overall tone to your website design or matching an existing color scheme.

4. You can experiment by adjusting two or more values to create unique contrasts in color. The lower the saturation, the less contrast there will be between colors. You can achieve that nice “pastel” color scheme by finetuning these values.

5. Adjust the sturation value to create a strong contrast between colors. The saturation will detirmine the intensity of a specific hue.

Step By Step Drawing Basic Until 3D and 5D Animation Photo Shop Tutorial

Drawing Basic Shape Photo Shop CS3 And CS5 Tutorial

If You Played with Lego building blocks when you were a kid, you may find this drawing style familiar (or at least intuitive). You’ll use several basic shapes and then connect them together. This technique requires breaking down each body part of the character into basic building blocks using the Rectangle and Oval tools. It’s a fast and efficient way to simplify the character into manageable sections while achieving a very professional cartoon style. Here, we will use shapes to cut in to other shapes.

This is a very useful technique for cutting holes out of objects as well as altering the edges of shapes. Of course these techniques can be applied to background elements as well. The key here is using simple shapes to build complex images suitable for Flash style animation, which we will get to in later chapters :

1. Here is my original pencil sketch that I have scanned and saved as a JPG file. I prefer to start with pencil on paper because I simply like the feel of this medium and the results are always a little more, shall we say, artistic.

2. After importing the scanned image, insert a blank keyframe on frame 2 and turn on the Onionskin tool. This allows me to trace the image in a new frame while using the original image as a reference.

3. Using the Oval O and Rectangle R tools allows us to quickly achieve the basic forms of our character. The Selection tool is great for pushing and pulling these basic fills into custom shapes based on our sketch.

4. Turn on the Snap option (magnet icon), and drag corners to each other so they snap together. This process is not unlike those Lego building blocks you played with when you were a kid.

5. Next, click and drag the sides of your shapes to push and pull them into curves. This is a fun process as your character really starts to take shape.

6. To achieve the black outline, select the shape, copy it using C ctrl C and paste it in place using shift V ctrl shift V. While it’s still selected, select a different color from the Mixer panel and scale it about 80% smaller.

The original shape is still present underneath your new shape. The trick is to position the new shape offcenter
from the original to achieve an outline with a varied weight.

8. The parachute uses a slightly different technique I like to call “cutting in”. Let’s start with the Oval tool for the parachute’s basic shape.

9. You can cut into this shape using different colored shapes such as this blue oval. position it over the area you want to cut into, deselect it, then select it and hit the Delete key Delete.

10. Once your shape is the way you want it, you can use the Ink Bottle tool S to quickly add an outline to it.

Monday, October 25, 2010

Identify Navigating And Managing Menu Adobe Photo Shop

Adobe Photo Shop is easy to navigate once you know how. First, let’s learn the names of some of the major parts of the Lightroom interface. shows the major components of the user interface (UI). Egad! You have probably noticed there is hardly any room left to show the thumbnails of the images.

Main Menu
The main menu commands are located in the Lightroom menu bar at the top of the screen. If you are in absolute full-screen mode, the menu bar is hidden, but can be revealed by changing the mode pressing the F key or moving the mouse up to the top of the screen.

Top Panel
The top panel section in Lightroom contains the module picker, allowing you to move between the diff erent Lightroom modules with the click of a mouse. The top-left section also contains the Identity Plate under which
you can see the progress indicator when Lightroom is busy working on something.

Grid View or Image Display

This is the part of the interface where you view, select, sort, and work with the photos. How this area appears depends on the module you are in and what mode you are in as well. For example, in the Library module Grid mode, the thumbnails are displayed like a traditional light table. The size of the thumbnails is controlled by the slider on the Toolbar.

In the Library module Loupe mode or Develop module, you see individual images displayed in different zoom factors. In other modules Slide show, Print, and Web, this area functions as previews of how images will appear when they are output from Lightroom.


The Toolbar (at the bottom of the screen) is toggled on and off by pressing the T key. It is common to all Adobe Photo Shop Lightroom modules. It contains diff erent tool sets depending on the module currently selected.

Right Panel
In the right panel, you generally fi nd the controls for adjusting an image, information about an image (metadata), or image layout settings. The Panel options can be expanded or collapsed by clicking the name of the panel bar for example, Folders. Clicking a panel bar toggles it revealing the contents of that panel.

Left Panel

The left panel is where you manage your photos and control presets. This is especially true when you are in the Library module, the left panel is used to manage folders, collections, and keywords.


The Filmstrip at the bottom of the screen contains thumbnails of all the images currently displayed in the Library. The Filmstrip thumbnails can be accessed in all of the modules. This is a handy way to access the images or even a group of images without having to switch back to the Library module.

The image shown is in the Library module in Grid mode. Each part of the Lightroom interface (panels, toolbars, etc.) can be individually opened and closed to allow more room to display the thumbnails, which quite frankly, could take a lot of time. Press Shift+Tab to show or hide all of the panels. Now you can see all of the thumbnails without all of the other panels cluttering up the screen.

Performance Second Step Adobe Phot Shop

For The Memory

Adobe Photo Shop Lightroom loves RAM, lots and lots of RAM. The truth be known, all photo editing applications can benefi t from extra RAM. There are some natural limits to the amount of RAM you can stuff in your computer, like the maximum amount of RAM that your computer can hold, as well as how much RAM the operating system can eff ectively use. In addition to these limits, there are several factors that aff ect how much RAM Lightroom needs. One determining factor is the size of the camera image you are shooting. The size of the raw image produced by a 10.2 megapixel camera has greater memory needs than a camera with a 5 megapixel sensor.

As a general rule of thumb, anywhere from 1.5 to 2 GB of RAM is a good amount of memory for almost any image editing application. Many users view RAM in the way they treat vitamins. If a little is good, more is better. Just because your system allows the installation of large amounts of memory like 4 GB, don’t immediately assume that you need it.

Once you get beyond 2 GB in RAM, those reasonably priced memory modules suddenly become very expensive. Before making the leap, check out your memory usage while the application is running. In Windows, press Ctrl_Alt_Del and look at the Performance tab. In the example shown, only half of the 2 GB installed on the system is being used. If the memory on this particular system were doubled to 4 GB, the amount of RAM used by Lightroom would not change, and I would have paid more money for the fatter RAM modules than I paid for the original computer.

Computer For :

* Mac OS X 10.3, 10.4 or later, open Activity Monitor (/Applications/ Utilities/). For Mac OS X 10.2.8 or earlier, open ProcessViewer (/Applications/ Utilities/).

* Mac OS X processes and applications are listed in main window. In Mac OS X 10.3.9 and earlier, the ‘% Memory’ column indicates the percentage of RAM in use by an application or process at the time of sampling.

* In Mac OS X 10.4 or later, you can see the overall percentages of memory in use or idle at the bottom of the Activity Monitor window.

View of Windows Vista

Windows Vista and Lightroom were released within a few weeks of each other. While Lightroom works when run on a Windows Vista, there are a few hitches here and there, enough so that Adobe didn’t list Vista support along with Windows XP for the initial 1.0 release. Don’t get in a twist over this. Adobe wasn’t the only major vendor that didn’t immediately off er Vista support when Microsoft fi nally shipped it. Many Windows users now discovering that while Vista looks pretty, it generally slows down overall operation and they have returned to Windows XP.

Preparation and Initial step Adobe Photo Shop Tutoral Can Be Perfect

Initial steps are performed  Adobe Photo Shop Tutorial

1. Hardware and Performance

Lightroom is a cross platform application, meaning that there is one program that can be installed on either a Mac or a Windows platform. For the Mac users, Lightroom is written in Universal Binary, so it can go blazing fast on an Intel-based Mac without the need of Rosetta as well as work on a G4 or G5 The minimum hardware requirements are printed and posted everywhere so rather than wasting space repeating them, I will instead give some recommendations about what equipment will improve Lightroom performance and what won’t.
 2. The Need for Speed

Like most image editing applications, getting a faster processor will have a minimal improvement in the speed of operation. For example, on a Windows platform, doubling the processor speed may produce a 20% increase in performance. According to Apple, upgrading from one of the Power PC chips (G4 or G5) to the Intel-Duo chips will double the speed. Will that actually make Lightroom work twice as fast? Probably not since a signifi cant part of Lightroom operation involves disk accesses, and hard drives (even the latest, fastest ones) are a bottleneck. What about dual processing on a Windows platform? Good question, and the only answer I can give you is comparing the performance of a system with an Intel P-4 vs. a similar system with the Intel-Duo.

3. Mac vs. PC

The eternal question was often brought up during 1.1 beta testing most of whom were Mac users. For lots of technical reasons, the Mac has a slight performance edge over Windows (especially if you are using Windows Vista). Mac OS X seems to manage memory better than Windows and the graphics language selected to work with Windows turned out to be less than an optimum choice. Regardless, the diff erence between running Lightroom under OS X and Windows isn’t great enough to warrant further consideration.

4. Video Graphics Cards

The video graphics card, also called graphic accelerator, is a piece of hardware (often quite ex pensive) that seems like it should speed up all of your image editing. Actually, these cards are designed to speed up video games and editing movies. And they do not provide any improvement when used with Lightroom, Photoshop, or Photoshop Elements. I am not saying that you can’t buy some hot graphics card to feed your video game habit and say that it is for improving Lightroom, I am only saying you shouldn’t expect to see any diff erence in performance, with Lightroom. In the fi rst two paragraphs, I have shot down processor speed and graphic cards. You may be wondering if there is anything you can do that makes Lightroom run faster.

Never fear, when it comes to computers there are always ways to spend money and improve performance – like increasing the amount of random access memory (RAM) on the system editing. Actually, these cards are designed to speed up video games and editing movies. And they do not provide any improvement when used with Lightroom, Photoshop, or Photoshop Elements. I am not saying that you can’t buy some hot graphics card to feed your video game habit and say that it is for improving Lightroom, I am only saying you shouldn’t expect to see any diff erence in performance, with Lightroom. In the fi rst two paragraphs, I have shot down processor speed and graphic cards. You may be wondering if there is anything you can do that makes Lightroom run faster. Never fear, when it comes to computers there are always ways to spend money and improve performance – like increasing the amount of random access memory (RAM) on the system

Know First Step Adobe Photo Shop Light Room TUTORIAL

Adobe Photo Shop Light Room

Adobe Photoshop Lightroom is the perfect complement to Adobe Photoshop.’ That answer is correct, but it is also very narrow especially when you consider that there are other Adobe applications that need to be considered when looking at what replaces what. Most users of Adobe digital imaging solutions know there is more than one overlapping solution in the Adobe library of applications. In addition to Photoshop, there is Adobe Bridge which has evolved from a modest inter-application utility into use as an image manager by many Photoshop users. Let’s not ignore Photoshop Elements which, like Photoshop, has all of the necessary tools that Lightroom does not.

So, does Lightroom replace Photoshop, Bridge, or Photoshop Elements? The answer depends on what you do. Wedding photographers I interviewed during the Lightroom beta testing told me Lightroom does everything they need for a wedding shoot and does it in the least amount of time and time is money. For myself, I shoot stock and fi ne art photography, so Lightroom is not enough to do all of my magic; so I need an external photo editor like Photoshop or Photoshop Elements for a few of my special photos. So, while Lightroom won’t replace your existing favorites, it will change how and when these programs are used.
Photo Editor Adobe Photo Shop

Probably the biggest feature of Lightroom that makes it different from the rest of the digital imaging herd is its ability to make adjustments to images while leaving the original photo untouched whether you are working with Raw images, JPEG, TIFF, or even Adobe DNG. This is a very important concept, so I thought it is best to include an example.When working on images with a traditional photo editor, you want to preserve the original image so that you can return to it after the client tells you that what they asked you to do isn’t what they meant at all. Isn’t communication fun?

The duplicate image method is the best way to ensure that you always have a copy of the original to return to. It also fi lls up the hard drives pretty fast. The Lightroom approach is to apply the changes to a small fi le called a sidecar fi le that is kept with the image. When the fi le is displayed in Lightroom, the image displayed refl ects the changes you made. The original remains untouched.

There’s more. Back to Photoshop, if you wanted to make several versions of an image treatment to show a client, it requires multiple copies of the image. In Lightroom you can make a Virtual Copy of the image. While it appears that there are multiple copies of the image, there is actually only one with multiple sidecar fi les reducing the amount of hard drive space needed. The example shown next is a photograph of a couple of Cuban cigars. It appears that there are three identical photos showing several diff erent treatments. The original fi le size is 15 MB, but, even though there are three diff erent variations (you can only see three of the variations in the fi gure), the total fi le size is still roughly 15 MB. Had I done the same thing in Photoshop, the total of the four variations would have been over 60 MB.