Showing posts with label TECHNOLOGY UAV ISREL-U.S. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TECHNOLOGY UAV ISREL-U.S. Show all posts

Friday, March 4, 2011

U.S NAVY PROGRAM A160T Hummingbird UAV By BOEING Technology

Boeing’s A160T Hummingbird represents the high performance end of current rotary‐wing UAVs. Roles that are envisaged for the Hummingbird include ISTAR, offensive, communications relay, precision resupply and remote delivery of unmanned ground sensors and vehicles. To date Boeing has been working with DARPA, the US Army, US Navy (USN) and SOCOM. In May, the US Special Operations Command revealed plans to buy about 20 A160s, which would be designated the YMQ‐18, in fiscal year 2010. The US Marine Corps is also evaluating the A160 to serve as an “immediate cargo UAS” that could be deployed as early as February 2010, with the mission of hauling up to 910kg loads to forward bases within a 24h period.

The robotic A160T Hummingbird helicopter made by Boeing has just been tested and the slick flying machine was unmanned and airborne for 12 minutes. The "helibot" will have the ability to fly at 140 knots as high as 30,000 feet for up to 20 hours. A good armor against terrorist who seem to have no value for life or property.

The A160T Hummingbird certainly boasts several performance advantages over standard manned craft, where it has a flying range of 2,5000 miles and the capability to stay aloft for a full 24 hours despite carrying a 300 pound payload. Tests have shown that the A160T is widely tipped to fly up to 140 knots at altitudes of up to 30,000 feet. Not to mention, you won’t experience any loss of life with the A160T when it is operating in a hazardrous battlefield environment. War games are getting more and more digital by the day, so I should dust off my copy of Advance Wars DS and start rehashing my battle strategies.

A160T Hummingbird

I-GNAT UAV And SKY WARRIOR UAV Multi Purpose Technology

General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affiliate of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), tactical reconnaissance radars, and surveillance systems. The company’s Aircraft Systems Group is a leading designer and manufacturer of proven, reliable UAS. It also manufactures a variety of solid-state digital ground control stations (GCS) and provides pilot training and support services for UAS field operations. The Reconnaissance Systems Group designs,
manufactures, and integrates the Lynx Synthetic Aperture/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI)
radar and the highly sophisticated CLAW® sensor payload control and image analysis software onto both manned and unmanned surveillance aircraft.

It also integrates other sensor and communication equipment into manned intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) aircraft and develops emerging technologies in solid-state lasers, electro-optical sensors, and ultra-wideband data links for government applications. Leading the industry to new levels of performance, reliability, and operational capability since its establishment in 1993, GA-ASI has expanded the acceptance and application of UAS within the United States and among allied forces around the globe. The company is dedicated to providing long-endurance, mission-capable aircraft with the integrated sensor and data link systems required to deliver persistent, wide area situational awareness and rapid strike capabilities.

GA-ASI has over 4,000 employees at multiple facilities in the San Diego area and in the Mojave Desert, just east of Los Angeles. Unmanned airCraFt SYStemS GA-ASI is revolutionizing aviation by expanding the capabilities of UAS, making them viable alternatives to manned aircraft for a variety of missions. The company continues to push the envelope with innovative high-tech UAS solutions that have produced an ever-growing line of versatile, reliable, cost-effective, and combat-proven aircraft.

The I-GNAT UAS series offers the benefits of a long-loiter aircraft with over 40 hours of endurance, a large payload capacity, ease of use, and low maintenance requirements while providing a very low cost-per-flight-hour. I-GNAT, an improved version of the original GNAT-750, is designed to take off and land conventionally from any hard surface and is in operation with the U.S. Government and foreign militaries.

Sky Warrior UAS, a Predator derivative, was designed to meet the U.S. Army’s Extended Range Multi Purpose (ER/MP) requirement for a non-developmental solution for persistent ISR and tactical strike operations. Powered by a heavy-fuel engine and featuring the same redundant flight systems and surfaces as in
the Predator B, the aircraft provides persistent wide-area surveillance with long-endurance communications relay, and weapons delivery missions, with twice the weapons capacity of Predator.
SYStem oPeration and ControL GA-ASI manufactures a variety of solid-state digital GCS featuring high mobility and portability that are in operation around the world today. These stations allow direct, real-time control of the aircraft and their onboard sensors that provide intelligence to customers located on land, in an aircraft, or on a ship anywhere in the world. Each aircraft is controlled by a pilot in a GCS through a C-Band line-of-sight (LOS) data link at ranges up to 150 nautical miles, or autonomously to the range limits of the aircraft. For routine overthe  horizon control, a Ku-Band satellite data link is also available on Predator and Predator B series aircraft.

Currently under development, the flight-tested and ergonomically designed Advanced Cockpit GCS offers game-changing situational awareness and mission effectiveness with features that include 3D moving maps, a panoramic synthetic-enhanced horizon, highdefinition video, multi-aircraft control, a fused operational picture,
and intuitive touch screen displays and controls. The company also manufactures a Remote Video Terminal (RVT) that provides real-time imagery directly from the aircraft to war fighters in the field, on ships, or in the air.

US Air Force’s MQ‐X UAV In Project 2012 Full High Technologie Armament System

Two contracts now in competition – for the US Navy and Marine Corps’ small tactical unmanned
systems (STUAS) and the US Air Force’s MQ‐X UAV requirement will define key roles for unmanned
aircraft systems operated by US forces for possibly decades to come. The STUAS/Tier II competition
is scheduled to conclude in September, although the award may be postponed until after late

The USN and USMC have not published an estimate for total orders, but industry officials estimate a production run of 250 systems, with three to four vehicles likely for each system. Four teams are known to have submitted bids and performed flying demonstrations. Those competitors are the AAI Aerosonde Mk 4.7, the Boeing/Insitu Integrator, the UAV Dynamics Storm and the Raytheon/Swift Engineering KillerBee‐4.

The USN and USMC have issued requirements for an aircraft at least three times the size of the 18kg (38lb) Scan Eagle airframe. The services want an aircraft that can operate up to 4km (2nm) from either a land‐ or ship‐based ground control station. The aircraft should have at least 10h endurance, with up to 24h desired, providing full motion video throughout the flight. The current schedule calls for initial operational capability (IOC) in fiscal year 2012.

Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works today division unveiled this aircraft concept at the Air Force Association's annual convention in Washington DC. The USAF plans to buy the MQ-X to augment and replace the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial systems (UAS). I snapped this picture of the Skunks' MQ-X concept on display in their exhibit area, as well as this chart below. No subject matter experts were immediately available to comment on this particular design for the MQ-X UAV requirement.

The USAF has launched the first step in the process of finalising the requirements for the MQ‐X programme. The initial capabilities document for the MQ‐X has already been completed. The USAF’s newly released UAS flight plan up to 2047 lists several desired capabilities for the MQ‐X aircraft, but the timelines for the programme remain in flux. The USAF has planned to acquire an MQ‐X aircraft in the near term that would share many capabilities of the current aircraft performing the role namely the Predator/Reaper series. It would be followed by a family of increasingly sophisticated aircraft designated MQ‐Ma to MQ‐Mb to MQ‐Mc, with the latter having an air‐to‐air capability.

Honeywell RQ-16 Tarantula-Hawk $40 Million Technology Demonstration

Evolved from initial prototypes developed by the former Allied Aerospace company. Following a $40 million technology demonstration contract to Honeywell Defense and Space Electronic Systems in 2003, the MAV project was transferred to US Army’s Future Combat System (FCS) programme to fulfill the need for Class Iplatoon-level drone. In May 2006, Honeywell was awarded a $61 million contract to develop an advanced MAV with extended endurance and heavy-fuel engine.

 In 2007, the US Navy awarded Honeywell a $7.5 million contract for 20 G-MAVs (denoting the use of a gasoline engine) for deployment to Iraq with the US Multi-Service Explosive Ordnance Disposal Group In January 2008, the US Navy placed a surprise order for 372 MAVs, designated RQ-16A T-Hawk. In January 2009, the UK was reported to have ordered five complete T-Hawk systems for delivery by 2010.

Honeywell started developing the T‐Hawk with the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
in 2003, and a Block 1 version was deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan with the US Navy four years
later. The USN has ordered 180 RQ‐16s. The T‐Hawk is also being purchased by the British Army for
use in counter improvised explosive device stand‐off inspections.

RQ-16 T-Hawk


The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Office of Air and Marine (OAM) MQ-9 Predator B unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is a strategic asset for homeland security operated at and beyond the nation’s borders to overcome threats moving towards the United States. To support future mission requirements, OAM developed a maritime variant of its Predator B UAS, called the Guardian, with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to increase reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting, and acquisition capabilities in maritime operating environments.

The Guardian was modified from a standard Predator B with structural, avionics, and communications
enhancements, as well as the addition of a Raytheon SeaVue Marine Search Radar and an Electro optical/Infrared Sensor that is optimized for maritime operations.

In the southeast coastal border region and drug source and transit zones, OAM plans to use the Guardian to conduct long-range surveillance in support of joint counter-narcotics operations, where maritime radar is necessary to detect a variety of threats. In the future, at the northern border, the Guardian will allow OAM to conduct surveillance of the Great Lakes, creating a more comprehensive picture of activity in the maritime environment, and give law enforcement a more accurate tool to use in sorting illegal from legitimate activity.

MQ-9 Predator B unmanned aircraft system (UAS) CBP UAS Operations

• In addition to the Guardian, OAM operates five General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Predator B UAS:
– Three Predator B aircraft are assigned to the Southwest Border, operating from the U.S. Army’s Fort Huachuca in Arizona.
– Two Predator B aircraft are assigned to the Northern Border with operations based from Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota.

• The remotely piloted Predator B allows OAM to safely conduct missions in areas that are difficult to access or otherwise considered too high-risk for manned aircraft or CBP personnel on the ground. This risk-reducing capability, unique to a UAS, is increasingly critical to personnel safety and mission success.

• In addition to its border security mission, OAM leverages the Predator B UAS as a force multiplier during National Special Security Events and emergency and disaster response efforts.

MQ-9 Predator B
MQ-9 Predator B In March 2008, OAM and the USCG successfully conducted a demonstration of a maritime variant of the Predator B from Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. The demonstration paved the way for the development of a concept of operations and an operational requirements document for a maritime Predator.

MQ-9 Predator B On November 6, 2008, OAM and the USCG formed a UAS Joint Program Office to identify and address common maritime UAS requirements, including sensors, command and control, data exploitation, logistics and
training, and basing.

MQ-1 Predator And MQ-9 Reaper UCAS Effective Operations of Armed Forces

Much has been made of the considerable performance of such Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) as Northrop Grumman’s Global Hawk, flying at 65,000 feet and covering hundreds of thousands of square kilometres of ocean or land in a single mission. Global Hawk is likely to provide maritime surveillance for several nations, at least for the United States and Australia, and smaller, lower altitude UAS are also likely to enter service with a number of nations in the region in the short- and medium-term.

One issue that is only now beginning to come to the fore, however, is what will the Asian Pacific region do about unmanned armed intervention systems? Current operational experience by Coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan indicates a viable some would say vibrant role for Unmanned Combat Aerial Systems (UCAS), a role that is being proven almost daily in these areas. What does the region intend to do about implementing the lessons learned from this hard-won experience and applying them to what is arguably perhaps the most challenging arena in the world for sustained military operations? Does the future hold the prospect of swarms of armed UCAS darkening the skies of Asia?

Despite the levels of activity going on in UCAS development elsewhere in the world, the real answer to this question is that it is probably too early, at this point, to make any accurate forecast of what is likely to
happen in Asia. There are too many variables, too many vested interests that haven’t yet quite decided where their interests should be vested, and too many unanswered questions. It is not too early, however, to start asking the question. And it is certainly not too early to examine what might be learned from the development and concept demonstration programs taking place in other parts of the world notably the United States and Europe.

MQ-9 Reaper UCAS
In the United States, considerable attention has been focused on the development of concepts of operations for the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper UCAS, which has resulted in robust and effective operations
of armed UAS in the skies over Iraq and Afghanistan the latter theatre including significant involvement from British Reaper operators as well as American. Anecdotal evidence from theatre shows that, on average, some 20 percent of daily available UAS sorties are dedicated to strike missions.

MQ-1 Predator UAV
NATO’s Joint Airpower Competence Centre in Kalkar, Germany, has studied the development of UAS tactics and has determined a number of potential armed intervention missions that can be effectively fulfilled
by UCAS: strike, air-to-air, overwatch, suppression of enemy air defence (SEAD), electronic warfare and on the basis that the best defence against a weapon system is another iteration of the same weapon system counter-UAS operations

Skylark II UAV 6 Hour Mission High Technology By IAI MALAT Israelly

The Skylark II UAV Made IAI-Malat Israel is a man-packed, hand-launched mini UAV system designed to operate in the battlefield using deployable Humvee-class field vehicles. It can be operated by a two-person crew from a ground control station (GCS). The vehicle is incorporated with a built-in launcher, GPS, a night camera and a laser marker. It is designed to perform brigade-level operations. The Skylark II is powered by a single electrical motor manufactured by Bental Industries. The engine can produce a maximum of 4kW. It is controlled by a battery pack contained in the payload pod underneath the main boom.

The propulsion system uses dual-channel permanent magnet brushless motors. A controller switches off one channel when cruising as this requires less power. The Skylark II is equipped with an electro-optical/infrared multi-sensor, a cross-coupled display, a thermal imager, a laser illuminator and an optical laser designator, which is used for targeting battlefields. The thermal imager is used to capture high-resolution images during the night by penetrating through clouds, rain, smoke, fog and smog.

The Skylark II UAV is an outgrowth of the Skylark mini-UAV system, currently operational with several armies. The 35 kg GTOW vehicle has a wingspan of 4.2 meter. It is designed to carry 6 hour missions at ranges up to 50km. The vehicle is powered by a new 4 kilowatt electrical motor, developed by Bental Industries, and driven by a battery pack contained in the payload pod underneath the main boom. The propulsion system is comprised of a dual-channel Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor and a Driver/Controller. The system delivers up to 4 kW during takeoff and climbing stages of the mission, but during cruising, when less power is needed, the driver switches one channel off, to save power, enabling extended vehicle endurance. This tandem design introduces propulsion system redundancy even with a single motor.

Friday, December 24, 2010

MQ-1 Predator And MQ-9 Predator B Ait To Ground Missiles Hunterkiller

MQ-1 Predator

A growth evolution of the proven GNAT system, Predator® is the most combat-proven unmanned aircraft system in the world, providing continuous and persistent armed reconnaissance and battlefield support to ground forces. MQ-1 Predator has an endurance of 40 hours, is equipped with a satellite data link system, and an electrooptical/infrared (EO/IR)-stabilized gimbal containing color and infrared video cameras, plus laser designation, laser spotting, and laser range-finding capabilities.

The aircraft has also been configured with air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles. Predator is operational with the U.S. Air Force (USAF), U.S. Navy, and the Italian Air Force. The U.S. Army I-GNAT ER/Sky Warrior® Alpha, Predator variant, provides support to ground forces through the aircraft’s precision capability to detect, identify, track, and engage timesensitive targets.

MQ-1 Predator


A turboprop-powered aircraft, the company-developed Predator B expands the mission performance and capability of Predator to meet ever-increasing mission requirements for civil and military applications. Based on the reliability of the Predator airframe, avionics, mechanical systems, data link, and flight control technology, Predator B has a 500 percent greater payload capacity than Predator, an endurance over 30 hours, speeds greater than 240 KTAS, and can operate above 50,000 feet.

It provides increased reliability through triple-redundant avionics and flight control systems and redundant flight control surfaces. The Predator B multi-MISSION aircraft can be configured with a variety of weapons to meet its designated “hunterkiller” mission requirements, carrying up to 3,000 pounds of external ordnance. Its improved EO/IR, and Lynx SAR with GMTI capability make it a dominant battlefield capability.
When equipped with a multi-mode maritime radar, Predator B also provides a superior maritime surveillance capability. Operational with the USAF as MQ-9 Reaper, Predator B has also been acquired by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the U.S. Navy, NASA, the Royal Air Force, and soon the Italian Air Force.

MQ-1 Predator

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

U.S Navy Bell Eagle Eye HV-911 VTOL Vertical Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV)

Eagle Eye HV-911 UAVs

Growing Demand Helps Narrow Gap between European and American Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV Markets With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) expected to better suit future requirements, its global market is poised for phenomenal growth. Despite the level of Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV performance increasing dramatically, it continues to be well below mainstream customer needs, and applications are yet to reach maturity. Since UAV technology still needs improvement, Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV manufacturers need to integrate and develop several components simultaneously, to garner market share.

This Frost & Sullivan research analyses and forecasts future opportunities and markets for Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV applications in the military, civil and commercial sectors. It also aims to identify key European participants and strategies for them to capture global opportunities.

Strategic Alliances and Core Expertise to Drive European Market Future battle space requirements are likely to focus on the kind of capabilities a high-altitude longendurance Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV can deliver such as electronic intelligence or target acquisition, says the analyst. By joining forces, European manufacturers can make use of the United States' competitive advantage and save significant amount of time. Moreover, European countries have core expertise in aerospace and defence sectors that can be transferred to the Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV industry. This, along with their good internal and external industrial relations, is likely to boost the European Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV market. The challenge in moving to the commercial market lies in making clients visualise the attractive value proposition for their business. To achieve this, manufacturers need to move closer to the market and interact with clients and offer innovative strategies to capture the market.

End-User Education Vital for Commercial Eagle Eye HV-911 UAVs to Take Off Many potential users are under the misconception that Eagle Eye HV-911 UAVs are too expensive, hard to operate and not available as ready solutions. The fact that they are not yet certified to fly in civil airspace adds to the negative perception. Users need to be made aware of the long endurance, interoperability, cost-effectiveness and the best intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities of Eagle Eye HV-911 UAVs. Manufacturers also need to spare no efforts to educate users on other environmental issues such as wildfire monitoring, illegal fishery and oil spill discovery, which can efficiently be monitored by Eagle Eye HV-911 UAVs.

Civil legislation, increasing awareness and needs in homeland security, certification, applications' investment and R&D cycles, market awareness/acceptance and reliable cost/benefit studies are critical factors for the success of this industry. Once end-users are made aware of the benefits of Eagle Eye HV-911 UAVs, these barriers are expected to be removed and the Eagle Eye HV-911 UAV market can only head for steady growth, concludes the analyst.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Boeing X-50 Dragonfly To U.S Army

Boeing X-50A Dragonfly

In June 1998 a $24 million agreement between DARPA and The Boeing Company funded a 37 month effort by the Boeing Phantom Works to design, build, and fly two technology demonstrators to assess and validate the X-50 Dragonfly Canard Rotor/Wing (CRW) advanced rotorcraft. Each contributed $12 million toward the program.

The first hover flight of the X-50A occurred on 4 December 2003, more than a year after the originally planned time frame. However, the career of the vehicle was short, because it was destroyed in a crash on 23 March 2004. After a thorough investigation, cross coupling of the rotor controls was identified as the major reason for the crash. After several modifications to the second X-50A, which had been built as a back-up vehicle, the CRW program was continued with extensive ground tests.

Boeing X-50A Dragonfly
The unmanned X-50A CRW is 17.7 feet long, 6.5 feet high, and the rotor blades have a diameter of 12 feet. Powered by a conventional turbofan engine, the X-50A will use diverter valves to direct thrust to the rotor blade tips (for helicopter mode), or aft to the jet nozzle (for fixed wing mode). Dual bleed thrust will be used during transition. By directing thrust through the rotor tips, the CRW concept eliminates the need for a heavy and complex mechanical drive train, transmission and anti-torque system.

Aviation enthusiasts may have noticed that the X-50 designation was not the next in line. But Steve Bass,
Boeing’s X-50 program manager, confirms Boeing got the number out of sequence by special request. The X-50 designation is so fitting for the CRW concept 50 percent helicopter and 50 percent airplane.

Boeing X-50A Dragonfly
The X-50A was powered by a single F112 turbofan engine, and the control surfaces of the vehicle consisted of fully-movable canards and a tailplane with twin endplates. The UAV was equipped with a fixed tricycle landing gear. For operation as a helicopter, the engine's exhaust was diverted to small nozzles in the rotor tips. Because of the reaction-driven rotor, no anti-torque device was needed by the CRW. As forward speed increased and significant lift was generated by the tail and canards, the engine thrust was gradually redirected to the tailpipe, until sufficient speed had been reached to stop the rotor completely and fly as a conventional fixed-wing jet. The X-50A was flown by a pilot on the ground via remote control, and there was no system installed for fully autonomous operations.

American Military Made Variant Series X-48 By Boeing

Boeing X-48A, X-48B And Boeing X-48C AirCraft

The Boeing Phantom Works Made Variant Series X-48C is currently developing the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center. In a continuing effort to study the flight characteristics of the BWB design, a small remote controlled model has been successfully flown. The next step is to fly the 35-foot long X-48 currently being built at Langley. Test flights are scheduled to begin in 2004.

The X-48A was made primarily of composites, had a wing span of 10.7 m (35 ft) and was powered by three small Williams J24-8 turbojets. As of mid-2001, the plans called for a completion of the vehicle by the end of 2002, ground tests through 2003, and a first flight in 2004. However, problems in the development of the flight control system as well as changing priorities at NASA led to the termination of the X-48A program (probably in early 2002).

The X-48C BWB concept reportedly offers greater structural, aerodynamic and operating efficiencies than today’s more conventional tube-and-wing designs. Its modular design also allows for center body growth while maintaining common wings. These features translate into greater range, fuel economy, reliability and life cycle savings, as well as lower manufacturing costs. They also allow for a wide variety of potential military and commercial applications.

The other one we just tested in the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel is the X-48C. It's been modified to make it even quieter. We're assessing the aerodynamic effects of those modifications." Those changes include reducing the number of engines from three to two and the installation of vertical fins to shield the engine noise.
It was actually a big thrill for me to be back at the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel," said Dharmendra Patel, project manager for the X-48C at Boeing Research & Technology. "I think it's a big privilege that we were the last test here, that we get to be part of the history of the tunnel. But it is a little bittersweet that the facility will be closed down.

The first flight of the X-48B eventually occurred on 20 July 2007. The vehicle is controlled by a pilot on the ground, who sees video transmitted by a forward-looking camera in the aircraft. After the initial low-speed flights, higher-speed tests were performed in test phase II. The latter required some modifications to the X-48B to increase its maximum speed. Phase II flight tests eventually began in spring 2008. By April 2009, 50 X-48B flights had been completed successfully, and a follow-on test program is planned to explore the limits of the vehicle's flight envelope.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems X-47A and X-47B J-UCAS Demonstration System

J-UCAS X-47A and X-47B UCAS

At the same time that Boeing was awarded the contract for their UCAV-N demonstrator, Northrop Grumman was awarded a similar contract for a different design. The initial Pegasus carries the designation X-47A, and a refined UCAV-N is expected to be designated the X-47B. Designed with stealth features and shaped like a kite, Pegasus is constructed largely with composite materials. One of the first tasks of the Pegasus flight program will be to demonstrate acceptable aerodynamic flying qualities suitable for operations from an aircraft carrier.

Northrop Grumman is performing trade studies, analysis and preliminary design for a UCAV-N under a $2 million contract with DARPA and the U.S. Navy. The goal of the joint DARPA/Navy project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility for a UCAV system to effectively and affordably conduct sea-based surveillance, suppression of enemy air defenses, and strike missions within the emerging global command and control architecture. The X-47A made its first flight on 24 February 2003 at NAS China Lake, California.

X-47 First Flight Flight Time: 12 minutes. Simulated a tailhook arrestment point on a carrier flight deck by landing near a predesignated touchdown point. Utilized shipboard-relative global positioning satellite (SRGPS) system as the primary navigation source for increased landing precision.

Challenging Objectives
• Long Range – Combat Radius
– 1300 nm with 4500 lb Payload
• Significant Endurance/Persistence
– Demo System: 1000 nm / 2 hrs loiter
– Objective System: 1000 nm / 3.5 hrs loiter
• Sizable Payload
– Size / Volume & Weight – 4500 lb - 2 JDAMs
– Multiple Weapons / Sensor Pallets
• High Platform Survivability
• Versatile Sensor Suite
– ESM Capability
– Synthetic Aperture Radar
– EO / IR Sensor
– EW / Electronic Attack Payload
• Carrier Suitability
– Catapult Launch
– Arrested Landing
• Global Operations
– Air Refuelable
– Civil Airspace Compatible

X-47B J-UCAS Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) Direction

• DARPA will lead overall effort and J-UCAS Office
– Joint office will focus on planning and executing a demonstration program
– Demonstration program will support both Air Force and Navy emerging requirements
– Demonstration program leads to a robust Operational Assessment (OA) beginning in FY07

• Services and J-8 will establish a process to develop and assess J-UCAS requirements
– Development and evolution of requirements is critical to the success of JUCAS program
– J-8/Services develop Op Assessment criteria in FY04
» Ops Assessment in FY07-09 timeframe
» OSD review in FY04

U.S Navy Boeing X-46 UCAS In Target Mission Bomber

Boeing X-46 UCAS
On 30 June 2000 DARPA and the U.S. Navy awarded two contracts for the first phase of the Naval Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV-N) Advanced Technology Program (ATP). Boeing and Northrop Grumman will each receive $2 million for the initial 15-month trade study, analyses, and preliminary design phase.

The goal of the joint DARPA/Navy project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility for a Naval UCAV system to effectively and affordably conduct sea-based suppression of enemy air defenses, strike, and surveillance missions. At the conclusion of the15-month preliminary design phase, DoD will decide whether to proceed with the second phase. DoD would select one or both contractors for the second phase to complete the development and demonstration of critical UCAV-N system technologies.

The Boeing X-46 UCAV-N program takes advantage of the work carried out under the DARPA/USAF UCAV program. However, the naval program adds surveillance to the mission set, and will include a significant focus on issues of naval shipboard integration. Initially, the program will emphasize a vehicle that can be launched from existing aircraft carriers using the standard catapult, and recovered using the existing arresting system. Other techniques may be investigated later during the program.

Boeing X-46 UCAS

Boeing X-45C/X-46/JUCAS/Navy Unmanned Combat Aircraft System (N-UCAS)

Boeing X-45C UCAV

The Joint Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle program originated as a USAF Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) under DARPA in 1998. A navalized version, the X-46, was contracted for in 2000 but never built. The first X-45C made its first flight on 22 May 2002 and the second in Nov 2002. Restructured as the Joint Unmanned Combat Aircraft System (J-UCAS) under DARPA management in 2003. It dropped its first bomb on 18 Apr 2004, and the two aircraft flew in formation under one controller on 1 Aug 2004. Restructured as an Air Force program in Nov 2005. Restructured under Navy management in Feb 2006 as the N-UCAS Carrier Demonstration program (X-45N). Characteristics for N-UCAS will be determined at contract award (3QFY2007) and will not include any mission systems or sensors.

The cancellation of the US Air Force / Navy Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) programme prevented Boeing from rolling out the X-45C demonstrator last week. The company’s contract to build three X-45Cs has been cancelled and work on the aircraft has stopped pending a competition for the US Navy’s carrier-based unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) demonstration.Users: U.S. Air Force and Navy.

The X-45C was developed by the Boeing (former McDonnell Douglas) Phantom Works in St. Louis, Missouri. The X-45C unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a tailless, 27-foot-long, jet-powered aircraft with a 34-foot wingspan. The vehicle incorporates a thrust vectoring system for yaw control, thus eliminating the need for vertical stabilizers, reducing the drag and radar cross-section. The UCAV System Demonstration Program is a joint DARPA/USAF/Boeing effort to demonstrate the technical feasibility for a UCAV system to conduct various strike missions within the emerging global command and control architecture.

The demonstrations will provide the information necessary to enable decision-makers to determine whether it is technically and fiscally prudent to continue development of a production UCAV. Two X-45A aircraft completed 16 flights during Phase I testing which ended in February 2003. Initial plans for an X-45B version were apparently cancelled in mid-2003, with the program moving directly to a more capable X-45C due to a change in mission requirements.

 Manufacturers: Boeing
Inventory: 2 X-45A Delivered/2 X-45C Planned (2006)

Boeing X-45C UCAV

Two Boeing X-45A UCAV Unmanned Jets Continue Coordinated Flights Two

The J-UCAS Boeing X-45A UAV/UCAV

Two military jets flying together may seem routine, but when they are pilotless, tail-less aircraft, routine goes out the window and science fiction springs to mind. Boeing continued to turn science fiction into reality when two X-45A technology demonstrator aircraft made their second and third coordinated flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif Controlled by a single pilot-operator, the Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems' (J-UCAS) X-45As, complete with Boeing's latest software build known as Block 3 software, departed in succession and entered coordinated flight over the test range. Known by the call signs “Stingray 01 and 02,” the revolutionary aircraft operated together in coordinated flight for more than one hour. During the Dec. 3 mission, the 27-foot-long air vehicles flew successfully in several different formations, demonstrating the ability to autonomously enter and exit coordinated flight based on pre-identified points and showing the ability to dynamically alter the formation in all three axes simultaneously.

The previous Block 3 multiple vehicle flight on Nov. 12 demonstrated “4-D” navigation, which allows the
vehicles to accurately control time-of-arrival over specified geographic locations in addition to maintaining
relative position – a critical capability in tactical operations. “With 42 flights and more than two years of testing under our belts, we're ready to take unmanned systems to the next level,” said Darryl Davis, Boeing J-UCAS X-45 vice president and program manager. “Using data from our first coordinated flight in August and others in 2004, we're developing an affordable, effective war fighting system capable of operating autonomously and cooperatively within networked combat environments.”

Boeing was recently awarded $767 million in funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA) to build and demonstrate three X-45C aircraft, two mission control elements, and to
integrate a common operating system technology for the J-UCAS program. Boeing's software used on the
X-45As may be offered as a candidate for functionality in J-UCAS' Common Operating System. The first
X-45C flight is scheduled to take place in early 2007.

The J-UCAS Boeing X-45 program is a DARPA/U.S. Air Force/U.S. Navy/Boeing effort to demonstrate the technical feasibility, military utility and operational value of an unmanned air combat system for the Air
Force and the Navy. Operational missions for the services may include suppression of enemy air defenses;
strike; electronic attack; intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; and persistent global attack. The two
X-45A technology demonstrators are currently verifying the core functionality of the software necessary for these and related missions.

A unit of The Boeing Company, Integrated Defense Systems is one of the world's largest space and defense
businesses. Headquartered in St. Louis, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems is a $27 billion business. It
provides network-centric systems solutions to its global military, government and commercial customers. It
is a leading provider of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems; the world's largest military
aircraft manufacturer; the world's largest satellite manufacturer and a leading provider of space-based
communications; the primary systems integrator for U.S. missile defense and Department of Homeland
Security; NASA's largest contractor; and a global leader in launch services.

Israel Army Made The PCD “Heron” UAV

Heron UAV Performance Driven Design

The maiden UAV Squadron operates Heron and Searcher MK II UAVs. The UAVs are capable of undertaking maritime surveillance tasks. The induction of UAV platform in the maritime context has added a new dimension to naval warfare capability. Further, Indian Navy is one among the first few navies of the world to operate these air vehicles. With induction of these state-of-the-art vehicles, maritime warfare aspects would be revolutionised as these platforms would serve as force multipliers in support of fleet operations.
The PCD Heron UAV was designed to maximize the potential of a small and low cost autonomous aircraft. Using innovative designs and effective implementation, we have been able to cram an amazingly large amount of functionality into a small, cheap package. The final product achieves stunning results:

• The modular design allows for a wide range of payloads, equipment, and capabilities to be put into any air frame.
• The intelligent controls allow it to autonomously fly itself to a target destination or route, perform multiple complex objectives, and return to base.

Heron UAV Applications
• Aerial Video Surveillance
• Munitions deployment
• Supply delivery
• Intelligent battlefield monitoring and reporting
• Riverine look-ahead in HDTV up to 5 miles
• Civil and commercial applications.
• Weather reporting

Heron UAV Concept Highlights
• Low cost (< $15,000/Unit)
• Highly configurable due to “Snap-together” modular design
• Flight times up to 24 hours
• Speeds up to 90 mph
• HDTV, IR and megapixel imaging
• Autonomous flight including takeoff, landing
, and mission objectives
• Light and durable airframe construction
• Innovative “stop-on-a-dime” flaperons
• Ballistic chute for drop-in capability
• Launch from RIB, runway or catapult
• Waterproof for water landing or “snag” from RIB

Thursday, December 9, 2010

The U.S Army MQM-107A Streaker, MQM-74C Chukar II and Northop MQM-36 High Technology UAV

MQM-107A Streaker, MQM-74C Chukar II and Northrop MQM-36 Shelduck

Despite the fact Iran had been using American-made Beech MQM-107A Streaker and Northrop MQM-36 Shelduck and MQM-74C Chukar II aerial targets for target practice since the early 1970‘s, it did not introduce UAS in a reconnaissance/ surveillance role until early 1984 at the height of the war with Iraq, when a three-man Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) team demonstrated the potential of reconnaissance UAS to a group of sceptical Pasdaran commanders. The early efforts were not very successful, but the start of Iran’s major ground offensive, Operation Kheibar, in February 1984, in the Iraqi marshlands, which amplified the country’s need for timely intelligence, boosted the UAS prospects. Soon, the IRGC team managed to gain enough interest for further development of reconnaissance and attack UAS. The era of UAS was dawning in Iran, and from then on, it has played a major, and increasingly successful, role in collecting battlefield intelligence for Iranian military commanders.

MQM-107A Streaker
 The first operational use of a UAS (called Pahpad in its Persian abbreviation) was carried out in July 1984 over the southern border marshes, resulting in surprisingly clear battlefield pictures and up-to-date intelligence just before a planned series of land incursions into Iraqi lines. A very simple radiocontrolled airplane, carrying a commercial Hasselblad camera with a 135 mm lens, overflew Iraqi positions at a height of only 50 m and brought back photos of the extensive fortifications, which led the Iranian commanders to cancel their upcoming offensive there. Up until the end of the war the unmanned aircraft now flying at higher altitudes and taking oblique, as well as perpendicular, photographs – played an important role in supporting major offensives [Badr (March 1985), Valfajr-8 (February 1986) and Karbala-5 (January 1987)].

MQM-74C Chukar II
Northrop MQM-36 Shelduck

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Israel And Middle East Made Technology RX-18, Heron And Yabhon RX-6UAV

Skylark UAV, Yablon RX-8 UAV and Heron UAV

Israel’s list of UAVs matches China’s at 40 models and variants, from 10 manufacturers but with a significant difference: Most can be fully vetted. Israeli platforms cover a broad spectrum of sizes, capabilities, and missions, from the 0.5-kg Mosquito urban MAV to the 4,650-kg medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) mulversion timission Heron TP, both from IAI. Most Israeli manufacturers have at least two UAVs under development or in production; Elbit Systems, IAI, and Aeronautics Defense Systems offer at least nine each.

Turkey has developed its own wide range of UAVs in recent years, most under the banner of TUSAS Aerospace Industries. And while TAI earned its reputation with a series of small, short-range, low-altitude vehicles, its principal effort since 2004 has been the TIHA, a Predator-class MALE intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (ISTAR) vehicle, scheduled for first flight in this year.

Also planned to debut this year, according to reports quoting Turkish Defense Minister Vecdi Gonul, is a mini that can be carried in a soldier’s rucksack and outfitted with day/night cameras for closerange surveillance.
Abu Dhabi has joined the race to field its own Predator- class MALE UAV with Adcom Military Industries’ Yabhon RX-18.

The company already produces two UAVs under the Yabhon name a jet-propelled high-speed diving target drone (Yabhon HMD) and a piston pusher prop for long-endurance reconnaissance and surveillance (Yabhon RX-6). Although it has no production facilities, the Lebanese-based Shiite militia Hezbollahhas made considerable news in the past few years by flying UAVs, believed to be supplied by Iran, over Israel. Various reports have identified the Hezbollah vehicles as the Mohajer 4 and Abadil-T.

The U.S Develope Technology X-47B and BAMS UAV


As the U.S. military moves deeper into the evolving realm of the networked battlespace, attention is turning to the need for better coordination of manned and unmanned aircraft. Some combat pilots in Southwest Asia have referred to the hundreds of UAVs operating in the same airspace as “FOD [foreign object debris] in the sky.” But surpassing the relatively remote possibility of a crowded-sky collision is the potential of UAVs and manned aircraft working as a team.

Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman have created a joint venture called Longbow to develop an unmanned tactical common data link assembly, or UTA. It would allow the crew of an AH-64D Apache Block III attack helicopter to control linked UAVs. The UTA completed its first powered flight at the end of 2008, successfully acquiring and tracking an unmanned Little Bird. The UTA is fully integrated with the Apache’s display systems, allowing the crew to receive and view realtime, high-definition streaming video from UAVs at long distances from the helicopter.

At AUVSI’s Unmanned Systems Pro gram Review 2009, Navy officials talked about the prospects of a sixth-generation unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) to supplement and eventually replace the fifth-generation F-35 aboard carriers. The concept vehicle for that will be the Northrop Grumman X-47B, scheduled to begin carrier-based launch and recovery flight tests in 2011 and attempt an autonomous carrier landing around 2013. The X-47B could stay aloft for up to 50 hr with a range of 3,000 n.mi. using autonomous refueling, which is to be tested in about 2015.

The Navy has no current plans to procure such a system, but is looking at it as part of an examination of future “capability gaps.” That also applies to the Navy’s broad area maritime surveillance system (BAMS).
Capt. Robert Dishman of the Persistent Maritime Unmanned Aircraft Systems Program Office told AUVSI that BAMS will leverage hardware, infrastructure, and expertise from across DOD “to provide persistent maritime intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance integral to the Navy’s airborne ISR recapitalization
strategy,” and that a $1.16-billion development contract awarded to Northrop Grumman in April 2008 “represents the Navy’s largest investment in unmanned aircraft systems to date.”

The BAMS UAV, based on Global Hawk and its accompanying system, would give the Navy persistent surveillance capability even in a “satellite-denied environment.” That need gained importance after a successful Chinese antisatellite test in 2007 and Iran’s claim to have launched its first indigenously produced satellite. The on orbit collision in February between a derelict Soviet-era satellite and an operational Iridium communications spacecraft was an even greater underscore, demonstrating not just the potential for the direct loss of a satellite but also the continuing danger of the expanding debris field it created.

The U.S Predator And Global Hawk UAV High Technology System


Predator or Global Hawk can be “piloted” from ground stations halfway around the world, while a hand launched micro air vehicle (MAV) like the Marine Corps Wasp can be monitored from a laptop or hand-held video display. Specialty UAVs “sniff” the air for chemical or biological weapons, monitor radiation levels, look for improvised explosive devices, protect convoys from ambush, patrol borders, locate smugglers and terrorists using small boats, aid search and rescue missions, and perform a seemingly endless list of additional tasks.

The growing variety of platforms worldwide has led to a wide range of shapes, sizes, propulsion systems, and range/altitude/endurance mixes. That, in turn, has brought about a rebirth for lighter-than-air unmanned fliers, from small and medium-sized tethered balloons and blimps to massive powered airships. Lockheed Martin, for example, is designing a high-altitude airship 25 times larger than the Goodyear blimp that could remain
“parked” 100,000 ft above its target zone for weeks or even months.

Even that does not come close to the Vulture, currently in competitive design for DARPA by Aurora Flight Services, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. The program work
statement was extremely basic: Carry at least 1,000 lb of payload, produce 5 kW of onboard power, demonstrate 99% on-station capability and high probability of mission successand stay aloft for five years without landing.

Also being resurrected in labs, thanks to both advances in micro- and nanotechnology and the desire to see and hear inside buildings, are bird- and insect-style MAVs, the first targeted for 2015, the latter for 2030. Tiny platforms, designed with flapping wings to make them more easily mistaken for actual birds or insects, could be launched in a swarm into a building to seek out terrorists, hostages, snipers, and intelligence.

UAVs are so much a part of warfare and military planning that two new concepts dedicated UAV carriers and counter-UAV systems are under consideration or development. The most ambitious of the former is the
UXV Combatant warship proposed by BAE Systems. The 8,000-ton vessel, which could enter service in the 2020s if pursued by a major naval force, would be dedicated to the launch and recovery of large numbers of unmanned vehicles, serving as mothership, control center, and maintenance facility for UAVs and, in all likelihood, unmanned surface and underwater vessels as well. Serving as a kind of small carrier, it also could host helicopters, VTOL aircraft like the Marine Corps V-22, and smart munitions such as cruise missiles.

The U.S. and its allies are not the only militaries deploying or planning to deploy UAVs, of course. And although the technologies that have made the current generation of U.S., European, and Israeli systems so successful will take time and resources to duplicate, the speed with which space launchers and nuclear weapons are proliferating suggests that gap may close far faster in the less complex UAV race. As a result, engineers also are now looking at anti-UAV systems, both to use against potential adversaries and to learn
how best to protect their own UAVs from someone else’s countermeasures.