Showing posts with label TECHNOLOGY UAV IRAN-RUSSIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TECHNOLOGY UAV IRAN-RUSSIA. Show all posts

Saturday, July 28, 2012

AL-21F-3 and RD-33 Turbo Jeet

The AL-21F-3 engine features a single-shaft configuration. The 14-stage compressor has a sophisticated control system. The cannular combustion chamber has 12 flame tubes. The three-stage turbine is of an impulse-reaction
type. The blades of the first and second turbine stages are cooled with the bleed air taken fromThe compressor. The afterburner has three annular stabilisers and six fuel manifolds with spray and swirl-type nozzles. A perforated screen is
installed to ensure internal cooling. The fully variable area propelling nozzle consists of the subsonic
convergent and supersonic divergent rims.

AL-21F-3 engine

AL-21F-3 Specifications
Thrust (H=0, M=0, ISA), kgf:
max continuous 7,800
min afterburner 9,700
full afterburner 11,250
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kgf/h:
economy power (H=0, M=0) 0.80
cruising mode 0.76
max continuous 1.86
Air consumption, kg/sec 104
Pressure ratio 14.55
Gas temperature before the turbine, oK 1,385
Dimensions, mm:
length /diameter 5,340/1,030
Engine dry weight, kg 1,800

RD-33 Turbofan Engine

The RD-33 engine has a two-shaft turbine configuration with exhaust mixing in the afterburner. The engine features a modular design. The lowpressure compressor has four stages; the highpressure compressor has nine stages. The engine has a short annular combustion chamber and single-stage low- and high-pressure turbines. The afterburner is common for both ducts. The engine
features a variable-area supersonic propelling nozzle. Due to good gas-dynamic stability, the RD-33 engines do not impose any limitations on piloting and feature high spool-up capacity. The RD-33 is designed to power the MiG-29 fighter family.

RD-33 Turbofan Engine
MiG-29 aircraft

The RD-33 Series 3 engine with an  service life is designed to power MiG-29M, MiG- 29M2, MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB aircraft. The RD-33N engine is designed to power the Mirage F1 fighter upgrade. It has a bottom gearbox, and can also be fitted on MiG-21 and Mirage III aircraft upgrades. The RD-93 engine was developed for the Chinese FC-1 aircraft. The RD-133 engine is designed for the MiG-29 aircraft. It features a fully variable nozzle with thrust vectoring and a new automatic hydromechnical electronic control system.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) HIgh Technology Gps and Laser Sensor Sytem

The antiquated pipeline network in Iran often results in the occurrence of leakage. Damages caused by third parties also cause growing leakage in pipeline network in Iran. Perusal of the current condition of pipelines in Iran shows that prevalent methods for leak detection are not suitable and effective for today’s needs. A representative of the Iranian Offshore Engineering and Construction Company (IOEC) indicated at the UVS Tech 2009 conference in Moscow, Russia in January 2009 that, according to their studies, aerial monitoring of the pipelines with UAS would improve Iranian pipeline network operations and would be more efficient and effective than the methods currently used.

Flexibility, short response time, and more accurate leak detection were stated as some of the advantages of this method. Using UAS would result in decreasing environmental pollution, increase quick response to third party damage and enhance maintenance of pipelines against corrosion by identifying potential places of corrosion. Moreover, it was stated that aerial survey by UAS can be an efficient solution for offshore inspection.

The IOEC representative furthermore stated that UAS seem to be suitable airborne platforms for the task of regular inspections of gas pipelines. According to Iranian feasibility studies, two different scenarios for UAS-based pipeline monitoring systems are considered:
• Small and lightweight, low-altitude UAS with a limited sensor and weight capacity;
• Small-size, low-altitude rotary wing UAS with a weight capacity sufficient for multi-sensor applications.

It was mentioned that such UAS would be operated in the uncontrolled (lower) airspace and, therefore, would require appropriate collision avoidance technology to avoid obstacles such as buildings, electrical power lines or low flying objects (balloons). For the purpose of pipeline inspection, a flight altitude of 100 m above ground level might be appropriate, which is generally below clouds. In this case, an optical/IR
sensor system would be sufficient.

The standard maximum resolution is currently <=0,5m/pixel @100m altitude above ground level. For high resolution, there is a need for terrain following in altitude. Precise mission planning with enough waypoints is a must. A solution has been proposed by offering an onboard application, which includes a microprocessor board which takes the (GPSreferenced) picture samples (Photon IR & standard video in parallel). The pictures would be stored on an onboard standard compact flash 8-32 Giga Byte.

The pictures could then be downloaded after the flight and be processed by an additional application to one big composite picture. There are further possibilities to highlight leakages by additional picture processing algorithms (e.g. colouring leakages in red). Handlaunch, autonomous flight, and autonomous landing are
considered necessary to lower personnel training needs.

The IOEC representative further indicated that for a point survey in a specified location that early survey shows has potential of leakage, or on locations where higher resolution imagery is required, rotary wing UAS are being investigated. A high resolution thermal imaging system like the FLIR Photon Thermal Imaging Camera allows entire areas to be scanned and the resulting data to be displayed as pictures with areas
of differing temperatures designated by differing color tones that help to identify areas of concern – both above and below the ground.

The first in the FLIR Photon Thermal Imaging Camera obtains sensitive imaging based on variant heat signatures (as seen in the photograph above). The second component is the Micro Epsilon Laser Range Finder which helps to keep the helicopter at constant altitude above the ground while the GPS-based
autopilot autonomously guides the vehicle along the pipeline route.



The private Asr-e Talai Company has introduced a 4 kg handlaunched mini UAS called Alamdar. The private Farnas Company develops a low cost hand launch model called Black Eagle, a solar powered UAS and several rotary wing UAS. The private Faraz Asia Technologies Company has introduced a UAS named Faraz-2. Faraz-2 is a hand-launched surveillance mini UAS with an endurance of 30 minutes and capable of transmitting real time video with two cameras up to a range of 10 km. It is back-packable and can be used for short range surveillance missions.

The commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) recently announced the force had in its possession three different and virtually intact American and UK unmanned aircraft, which had either crashed or been shot down inside Iran. He reported that that the aircraft were under study and were being reverse-engineered. Iranian governmental protests identified one «alien» unmanned aircraft as a Shadow 200
(RQ-7), which it said crashed 37 miles inside Iran in Ilam Province at sunset on July 4, 2008. A second protest letter said that on Aug. 25, 2008 a UK Hermes-450 aircraft crashed near Khoram Abad, about 125 miles inside Iran. The capture of these aircraft caused some new developments in field of fixed wing UAS in Iran, pushing the boundaries of sensors, engines and autonomy technology in Iran.

A final development worth mentioning, is a new generation of unmanned aircraft with a range of 1,000 kilometers (620 miles), which was recently announced by the Iranian Deputy Defense Minister Brigadier General Ahmad Vahidi, who called it an «important achievement.» The new UAS could range as far
east as India and as far west as the Mediterranean, and to the south over the Arabian Peninsula and to the north over much of central Asia and the Caucasus.


Tallash-1, Mohajer-2 And Mohajer-4 UAS

As mentioned earlier, Iran’s Qods Aviation Industries inherited Iran’s UAS production. It was created to design and manufacture a variety of cost-effective vehicles made from composite materials. The production of UAS was initially under the auspices of ministry of IRGC, but merged into Defense Industry Organization in 1992. Since 1998, it has operated as part of the Aerospace Industries Organization of the Iranian Armed Forces. The first UAS to come out of Qods Aviation was the lightweight Tallash-1, which reached production before the end of the war and was used successfully in the makeshift photo reconnaissance role against Iraqi forward positions. Following the successful production and operation of the Talash-1, Qods began designing and manufacturing a range of UAS for different missions, adding the Tallash-2 target
drones to the existing version.

 Others in the range include the Mohajer-1, a light reconnaissance and surveillance system with a range of 30 km. The Mohajer-2 reconnaissance and surveillance UAS is a modification of the first major Iranian
UAS design. Capable of speeds up to 180 km/h, it has a range of 50 km and a service ceiling of 11,000 ft. The endurance of the 85 kg aircraft is 90 minutes. The Mohajer-3 (Dorna) allweather target, surveillance and reconnaissance UAS is similar to the Israeli Pioneer. It has a range of about 100 km, speed of 180 km/h, and endurance of two to three hours and can be launched by means of RATO, or on its own wheels.

The twin-boom Mohajer-4 (Hodhod) is also a reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft. Its mission radius is 150 km, with endurance of 5 to 7 hours and a speed of about 180 km/h. Qods also develop hand-launch UAS, a jet engine model (called Mohajer-5) and a UAS called Shekarchi (Hunter).

The Saegheh-1 (Lightning) aerial target is capable of over 300 km/h, is launched by RATO and is recovered by parachute. The Saeqeh-2 aerial target is able to mimic different radar and IR emissions, incorporating GPS, a data link and limited radar decoy capability.


Mohajer-1 rocket-firing version
The Mohajer-1 rocket-firing version – armed with up to six RPG-7 rounds – was indeed used in combat against Iraq,which can be considered the first combat application of a weaponized UAS. It could also release grenades with a simple mechanism. The Mohajer UAS were in some cases also used for artillery correction, by sending data to the ground station and showing the impact point for the line commanders.

The positive wartime experience with unmanned aircraft prompted the Iranian leaders to endorse an expanded investment in the UAS industry, initially concentrated in the IRGC’s workshops and then transferred to a new industry entity, Qods Aviation Industries. The Iran Aircraft (Initially Helicopter) Manufacturing Industries (IAMI or, as it is called in Persian, HESA) near Esfahan, which was originally set up by Bell Textron to manufacture Bell transport helicopters in Iran, was also quite active in developing
and fielding its own range of UAS, named Ababil (a mystical bird).

Currently, Ababil is offered in three models: an aerial target, a long-range surveillance version equipped with INS/ GPS (both of these models have an aluminum airframe), and a fully composite UAS version. The UAS, a canard design,, is very maneuverable and has a range of 30 km, extendable to 120 km. It can climb to 10,000 ft and accelerate to 300 km/h. There are two new Ababil UAS models: a hand-launched version and a version with jet propulsion.

Recently, the IAMI design bureau has been working on a new generation of jet powered UAS, dubbed Ababil Jet (Hadaf-1), which has been designed around the Toloue mini jet engine produced by IACI’s engine industries (TEM). It has been reverse-engineered and is currently being used on C-802/ Noor anti-ship missiles, as well as on the Ababil jet-powered UAS and aerial targets (Hadaf-1). It can produce 3.7kN of trust with an RPM of 29,500. Toloue-4 is a three-stage axial design with a length of 1.3m. Perceived roles include aerial targets (carrying towed targets), cruise missile/fighter jet simulation for air and air defense crew practice.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Iran Joint Russia Technology Produce Abadil UAV and Yakovlev Pchela UAV

Abdail UAV

Iran’s UAV programs also are difficult to verify, with at least half a dozen companies said to have developed nearly a dozen vehicles, most reported to be short-range reconnaissance and surveillance models. Some experts in Israel, which has dealt with Iranian UAVs used by Hezbollah, dismiss their vehicles as copies of outdated Italian, South African, and Chinese models.

However, given the secrecy of the Islamic giant’s internal affairs and the scientific success it claims to be having in other aerospace efforts, such as rockets and space launch vehicles it would be unwise to dismiss Iran’s UAV programs out of hand. The most prolific of the state-owned firms, in terms of systems that are known or believed to be under development or in production, is Qods Aeronautics Industries. It has been credited with multiple variants of the Mohajer (Dorna and Hodhod), Tallash (Endeavor and Hadaf), and Saeqeh UAVs. Another is HESA, which also produces the Russian Antonov An-140 airliner under license. It is believed to have developed several variants of the Abadil UAV.

In 2007, Iranian officials, who have made numerous claims about the country’s UAV expertise and reconnaissance flights over U.S. ships in the Persian Gulf, announced development of a stealth vehicle with a 700-km range, but little other information is available.

Russia Yakovlev Pchela UAV

With the rebuilding of Russia’s military forces in recent years, UAV programs and manufacturers have proliferated. These have included efforts in the Predator class as well as development of massive aircraft along the lines of Global Hawk. A number of familiar names have joined the unmanned ranks, including Kamov, Sukhoi (responsible for Russia’s largest UAVs), and Yakovlev.
Russia’s most recent UAV deployments were during its 2008 invasion of Georgia, where both sides fielded unmanned systems and accused each other of using them to trigger combat engagements. While looking to bolster its own military capabilities in an area where it has long trailed its Western European neighbors and the U.S. and cognizant of China’s UAV efforts—Russia also sees UAVs as a potentially lucrative export market, with a primary customer in India