Showing posts with label TECHNOLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TECHNOLOGY. Show all posts

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

RD-1700 Bypass Turbojet Engine

RD-1700 Bypass Turbojet Engine Tecnology. The RD-1700 bypass turbojet engine is designed for the MiG-UTS trainer aircraft (МiG-АТ version). The RD-1700 is a miniature bypass turbojet engine without afterburner with a fixed-area nozzle. The engine version with afterburner was also developed with the
fixed- and variable-area nozzles. The engine uses a two-shaft configuration, has a two-stage fan, a four stage high-pressure compressor and a two-stage turbine with the cooled blades. The RD-1700 Bypass Turbojet Engine is a base engine for the family of the bypass turbojet engines with a thrust of 2,000 to 3000 kgf.

RD-1700 Bypass Turbojet Engine

RD-1700 Specifications
Maximum thrust, kgf 1,700
Specific fuel consumption, kg / (kgf.h) 0.7
Air flow rate, kg/s 30

pressure 14.1
bypass 0.78
length, mm 1,915
diameter, mm 621
Engine dry weight, kg 298

Monday, July 30, 2012

RD-600V Turboshaft Engine Technologies

RD-600V Turboshaft Engine. The RD-600V turboshaft engine of modular design is installed on the Ka-60/62 multipurpose twin-engine helicopters and its derivatives. The RD-600V is the engine of the new generation of 1,200 to 1,800 hp power class. Its distinguishing features are as follows:

* Reverse-flow combustion chamber

* Two-stage power turbine

* New memory storage

* Automatic electronic digital control system

* Segmented two-wall flame tube that increases the engine overhaul period to 10,000 hours

* Four-stage miniature axial-centrifugal compressor with a controlled starter, featuring a high degree of compression.

RD-600V Turboshaft Engine

The RD-600V engine employs a built-in high-effective dust protector that allows the helicopter to operate at unpaved airfields. The engine intermediate gear box can decelerate the output shaft to 6,000 rpm that considerably simplifies the design of the main rotor drive gear box of the helicopter and provides its best weight characteristics and overall dimensions.

The advanced system of faults monitoring and fully automatic digital two-channel test system of emergency warning greatly improves a factor of safety and reliability of helicopters that make use of this engine. The RD-600V engine is provided with the certificate registered in the Aviation Register of the
Interstate Aviation Committee (АRIAC).

RD-600V Engine Specifications
Power, hp / EM 1,550
Power, hp
takeoff 1,300
cruise 1,000
Specific fuel consumption, g / (hp.h)
takeoff 209
cruise 225
Air flow rate, kg/s 4
Pressure ratio 12.7
Engine dry weight, kg 220
Overhaul period
time between overhauls, hrs 220
service life, hrs 10,000

TV3-117 and TV7-117 Turboshaft Engine Family

The TV3-117VM/TV3-117VMA turboshaft engine family features a single-shaft configuration. The 12-stage compressor has a variable-area guide vane. The combustion chamber is of a straight-flow annular type. The engine has a twostage free turbine with the overspeeding protection. The exhaust pipe deflects the gas flow by 60 deg. The engine has an electronic-hydromechanical control system.

The engine is designed to power the Mi-8AMT, Mi-8MT, Mi-8MTV, Mi-14, Mi-17, Mi-171, Mi-172, Mi-24, Mi-28, Mi-35, Ka-27, Ka-28, Ka-29, Ka-31, Ka-32, Ka-50, and Ka-52 helicopters. The TV3-117 is one of the world’s most efficient engines in its class. It is easy to operate, maintain and repair. Introduction of the emergency thrust mode allows the helicopter to land safely with one engine failed. A dust guard can be installed.

TV7-117 Turboshaft Engine

Operation of the TV3-117 engine for 25 years in 60 countries has proved its exceptional reliability. The TV3-117VM/VMA is certificated by the Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation Committee and by corresponding bodies of Canada, China, and India.

Turboshaft engine family incorporates the VK-800, VK-1500VM, VK-2500, VK-3000 (TV7-117) and VK-3500 engines. High-end technologies, latest electronic digital systems, soft/hardware and monitoring and diagnostic equipment considerably improve capabilities of helicopters equipped with the new turboshaft engines. These engines differ from the old versions in extended overhaul period of the engine hot components, extra gas-dynamic stability at varying duties, engine parameters accuracy and engine control quality, enhanced monitoring depth providing operation of the engine according to its technical condition and better weight characteristics and overall dimensions.

Mi-38 helicopter

The VK-800 turboshaft engine of the fifth generation is designed to equip the Mi-54, Ansat and Ka-226 type helicopters. The VK-800V derivative was developed for the power units of helicopters of small and large load-carrying capacity, both in twin- and single-engine configuration. The engine parameters meet the requirements of the tested model of a centrifugal compressor and the single-stage un-cooled turbines. All this simplifies the engine design and reduces expenses for its manufacture and operation. Moreover, the enhanced characteristics of the main units of the engine provide its high efficiency.

The VK-1500VM engine is a turboshaft derivative with the power shaft in a backward position. It was developed for the Mi helicopters fitted with the TV2-117 engines. The VK-2500 turboshaft engine is a highpower derivative of the well-know TV3-117VMA engine. By its fuel efficiency and weight characteristics, the engine holds a firm place among the best world’s models. Modern control system improves the engine performance and provides its high reliability and long service life.

The new VK-3000 (TV7-117V) is based on the certified TV7-117 turboshaft engine. It is unitized
with the base engine by 90 %. The engine has two versions:


- with the power shaft in a forward position TV7-117V(VМ) engine for the Mi-38 heli copter and its derivatives

- with the power shaft in a backward position TV7-117VK engine for upgrading the Mi-28 and Ka-50/Ka-50-2 helicopters. The VK-3500 engine is designed for the Mi-38 helicopters.

Sunday, July 29, 2012

D-436TP and D-30KP Turbojet Engine

D-436TP Turbojet Engine

The D-436TP turbofan features a three-shaft configuration with minimum number of bearing supports. It has a modular design. The transonic fan is of a single-stage type. The low-pressure compressor has six stages, and the high-pressure compressor has seven stages. The engine has an annular combustion chamber. The lowpressure turbine is single-staged, and the highpressure turbine is three-staged. The engine is equipped with a thrust reverser, an electronichydromechanical control system and universal
attachment fittings.

D-436TP Turbojet Engine

The D-436TP turbofan engine is designed for the Be-200 aircraft. It boasts high reliability ensured by a longtime operating experience of the D-36 engine. is easy to maintain, and can be operated in sea
environment. The engine demonstrates stable operation in spite of sharp air inflow temperature inversions during forest fire-fighting missions. The engine complies with standing and future ICAO noise and emission requirements.

D-436TP Specifications
Thrust, kgf:
take-off mode (H=0, M=0, ISA+15) 7,500
cruising mode
(H=11,000 m, M=0.75, ISA) 1,500
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kgf/h:
take-off mode (H=0, M=0) 0.370
cruising mode (H=11,000 m, M=0.75) 0.608
Bypass ratio 4.98
Pressure ratio (total) 22.17
Gas temperature before the turbine, oK 1,520
Dimensions fan diameter, mm 1,373
Engine dry weight, kg 1,450

D-30KP Turbojet Engine

The D-30KP engine features a two-shaft configuration with exhaust mixing from both ducts. The two-rotor compressor has a three-stage first rotor and an eleven-stage second rotor. The engine has a cannular combustion chamber. The high-pressure turbine has two stages, and the low-pressure turbine has four stages. The nozzle, common for both ducts, has a blade mixer and a mixing chamber. This is Russia’s first production engine to feature cooled rotor blades of the first stage and a clamshell reverser, which does not affect the engine performance at the thrust mode.

Il-76TD Aircraft

Variants D-30KP engine
The D-30KP Series 2 engine provides the design take-off thrust at the ambient air temperature of +30oC. The engine is installed on the Il-76TD, Il-76MD, Il-76TP, Il-78, and A-50 aircraft. The D-30KPV version (without reverser) is developed for the A-40 aircraft.

NK-25 and D-30F6 Turbofan Engine Technology

NK-25 Turbofan Engine Technology

 The NK-25 three-stage bypass turbofan engine features turbine blade radial clearance active control and stator rings perforation for increased compressor stability. The rotor blades
and the nozzle vanes are cooled with vortex
flows. The engine has an anti-surge protection
with automatic recovery of the initial operation mode. The engine control system is electronic.
The NK-25 engine is designed for the Tu-22M3E multirole aircraft.


D-30F6 Turbofan Engine

D-30F6 Turbofan Engine Technology. The D-30F6 engine features a two-shaft configuration with exhaust mixing from both ducts. The engine consists of seven modules. It has a low-pressure five-stage compressor, a high-pressure ten-stage compressor and a cannular combustion chamber. The low- and high-pressure turbines are two-staged. The nozzle vanes and highpressure turbine rotor blades are cooled. The afterburner houses the exhaust mixer and has four ring flame stabilisers. The multivane supersonic nozzle is cooled.

 D-30F6 Turbofan Engine

The engine design enables onboard parameter monitoring. Reliability of the engine is ensured by the protection, backup, and early malfunction detection systems. The electro-hydraulic engine control
system is backed up with the hydraulic system activated if the electronic one has failed to ensure flight safety and effective mission accomplishment.


The engine has unique altitude and airspeed performance, providing maximum airspeed of 3,000 km/h at altitude and 1,500 km/h near ground. The D-30F6 engine is designed to power the MiG-31E fighter/interceptor.

D-30F6 Turbofan Engine Specifications
Thrust, kgf:
max continuous (H=0, M=0, ISA) 9,500
full afterburner 15,500
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kgf/h:
max continuous (H=0, M=0) 0.20
full afterburner 1.90
Bypass ratio 0.57
Air consumption, kg/sec 150
Pressure ratio (total) 21.15
Gas temperature before the turbine, oK 1,640
Engine dry weight, kg 2,416

AL-31F Turbofan Engine Technology

AL-31F Turbofan Engine Technology. The AL-31F engines have modular design, with a four-stage variable low-pressure compressor and a two-shaft turbine. The nine-stage high-pressure compressor has a variable-area first group of stages. The combustor is of an annular type. The single-stage high and lowpressure turbines have active radial clearance control. The air-to-air heat exchanger of the cooling system is placed in the external duct, and is fitted with a device preventing air flow in dry-thrust engine operation mode. 

The afterburner is common for both ducts. The supersonic nozzle has a variable-area design. The engine has a top-mounted gearbox, a looped oil system, and an autonomous startup system. The main control system is electronic, while the auxiliary one is hydraulic. The engine features a surge termination system and high gas-dynamic stability of the compressor.

AL-31F Turbofan Engine

The AL-31F engines are available both in standard and tropicalised variants. They are operational in a wide altitude/airspeed envelope, and provide stable operation in deep air intake surge modes at Mach numbers of up to 2.0, in controlled, inverted and flat spins, and enable execution of aerobatics in the dynamic operation mode at negative airspeeds of up to 200 km/h. The engines boast high gas dynamic stability and durability, enabling their operation in extreme conditions with air intake pressure irregularities and pulsing.

Variants AL-31F Turbofan Engine Technology
- The AL-31F engine is designed for installation in the Su-27, Su-30, Su-32, and Su-35 aircraft.

- The AL-31F Series 3 engine is designed to power the Su-33 aircraft.

- The AL-31FN engine is a development of the AL-31F engine featuring both bottom and top
gearboxes designed for the Chinese J-10A aircraft.

- The AL-31FP engine is another development of the AL-31F engine with a swiveling nozzle for the Su-30MK.

Saturday, July 28, 2012

AL-21F-3 and RD-33 Turbo Jeet

The AL-21F-3 engine features a single-shaft configuration. The 14-stage compressor has a sophisticated control system. The cannular combustion chamber has 12 flame tubes. The three-stage turbine is of an impulse-reaction
type. The blades of the first and second turbine stages are cooled with the bleed air taken fromThe compressor. The afterburner has three annular stabilisers and six fuel manifolds with spray and swirl-type nozzles. A perforated screen is
installed to ensure internal cooling. The fully variable area propelling nozzle consists of the subsonic
convergent and supersonic divergent rims.

AL-21F-3 engine

AL-21F-3 Specifications
Thrust (H=0, M=0, ISA), kgf:
max continuous 7,800
min afterburner 9,700
full afterburner 11,250
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kgf/h:
economy power (H=0, M=0) 0.80
cruising mode 0.76
max continuous 1.86
Air consumption, kg/sec 104
Pressure ratio 14.55
Gas temperature before the turbine, oK 1,385
Dimensions, mm:
length /diameter 5,340/1,030
Engine dry weight, kg 1,800

RD-33 Turbofan Engine

The RD-33 engine has a two-shaft turbine configuration with exhaust mixing in the afterburner. The engine features a modular design. The lowpressure compressor has four stages; the highpressure compressor has nine stages. The engine has a short annular combustion chamber and single-stage low- and high-pressure turbines. The afterburner is common for both ducts. The engine
features a variable-area supersonic propelling nozzle. Due to good gas-dynamic stability, the RD-33 engines do not impose any limitations on piloting and feature high spool-up capacity. The RD-33 is designed to power the MiG-29 fighter family.

RD-33 Turbofan Engine
MiG-29 aircraft

The RD-33 Series 3 engine with an  service life is designed to power MiG-29M, MiG- 29M2, MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB aircraft. The RD-33N engine is designed to power the Mirage F1 fighter upgrade. It has a bottom gearbox, and can also be fitted on MiG-21 and Mirage III aircraft upgrades. The RD-93 engine was developed for the Chinese FC-1 aircraft. The RD-133 engine is designed for the MiG-29 aircraft. It features a fully variable nozzle with thrust vectoring and a new automatic hydromechnical electronic control system.

R-95Sh and R-195 Turbojet Engines High Technology

The R-95Sh and R-195 engines feature a two-shaft configuration and a modular design. There is a three-stage low-pressure compressor without a guide vane, and a five-stage high-pressure compressor. The cannular combustion chamber has twin nozzles. The lowand high-pressure turbines are single-staged. There is no afterburner, and the nozzle is of a fixed-area type.

The R-95Sh and R-195 turbojet engines are noted for ease of operation, high reliability and combat survivability. They can withstand 23mm round hits, and retain operability after considerable damage (combat proven cases). The R-195 engine is a derivative of the R-95Sh engine. It features increased thrust, improved maintainability, reduced IR signature, and enhanced stability during missile launch.
The R-195 is fully interchangeable with the R-95Sh engine.

R-95Sh Turbojet Engine
R-195 Turbojet Engine

The R-95Sh engine is fitted on Su-25K, Su- 25UBK, and Su-25SMK aircraft. The R-195 engine is designed for the Su-39 aircraft.

Turbojet Engines Specifications
                                                                R-95Sh                             R-195
Thrust, kgf:
max continuous (H=0, M=0)                       4,100                               4,300
emergency (H=0, M=0)                                –                                    4,500
Specific fuel consumption
at take-off, kg/kgf/h                                    0.860                               0.890
Air consumption, kg/sec 67 66
Pressure ratio 8.7 9.0
Gas temperature before the turbine, oK       1,148                               1,188
Dimensions (without accessories), mm:
length                                                         2,700                               2,880
max diameter                                              772                                   805
Engine dry weight, kg                                  830                                   860

Technology R25-300 Turbojet Engine

Technology R25-300 Turbojet Engine

The R25-300 two-shaft, two-rotor engine with afterburner has a three-stage low-pressure compressor and a five-stage high-pressure compressor, a cannular combustion chamber, single staged low and high pressure turbines, and a fixed-area nozzle. The two-stage afterburner allows high-altitude air combat.

The R25-300 Turbojet engine’s main advantages are convenient maintenance, a continuous range of afterburning modes control with smooth thrust change, and easy single-handle control. The engine has two afterburning modes: afterburner and emergency thrust. The engine is designed to power the MiG-21 family aircraft. The R25-300-94 is designed to power the MiG-21-93 aircraft. It has an integrated hydroblade drive generator with multiplier and a reinforced gearbox drive chain.

R25-300 Specifications
Thrust (H=0, M=0, ISA), kgf:
emergency thrust 7,100*
afterburner 6,850
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kgf/h 0.91
Air consumption, kg/sec 68.5
Pressure ratio 9.1
Gas temperature before the turbine, oK 1,353
Dimensions, mm:
length 4,615
max diameter 907
Engine dry weight, kg 1,215

Thursday, March 31, 2011

Dell Supplier Information Technology Systems

Dell is a supplier of information technology systems to customers all over the world. It uses information technology and the Internet to communicate with customers, take orders, provide order status updates, and provide general service and support. By doing so, and conducting the majority of its business online or by telephone, Dell not only streamlines processes and saves customers time and money, it substantially reduces the use of paper in many steps of the supply chain globally. Today, where the use of paper is necessary, Dell endeavors to manage cost, quality and environmental concerns in its selection of paper products for catalogs, product packaging, and office use. In this regard, Dell supports the environmental Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) community and responsible suppliers in their efforts to reduce the use of paper by business and increase the availability and use of commercially-viable and environmentally-friendly paper and alternatives

To ensure that Dell continues to make progress on its paper stewardship goals, Dell will:

• Establish base-line starting points and set time-bound goals and benchmarks for achieving measurable outcomes in all key areas, especially virgin fiber reduction, elimination of sourcing wood and fiber from endangered forests, increased use of recycled and alternative fiber, as well as, increased use of wood and fiber independently certified as sustainable, with a preference for wood and fiber certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC);
• Report annually on its environmental progress and release this information publicly to increase transparency and the participation of all stakeholders;
• Encourage innovation in our paper supply chain to improve Dell’s environmental performance and that of other catalog producers.
Protecting Endangered Forests
It is Dell’s intent not to source paper from companies that are known to log endangered forests.1 For example:

I. Landscape integrity. Dell will evaluate and, if necessary, avoid sourcing from intact forest landscapes, forest restoration areas, remnant forest landscapes, and forest landscapes that provide ecological connectivity.

II. Biodiversity. Dell will avoid sourcing from rare forest types, forests exhibiting significant levels of species richness, rare ecological and evolutionary areas, the core habitat of conservation species, and areas which are home to high concentrations of rare and endangered species.

III. Ecosystem services. Dell will evaluate and, if necessary, avoid sourcing from forest landscapes that provide key carbon storage and clean drinking water.

Dell Laptop

• Dell will actively research its own paper and wood supplies and will require its paper suppliers to identify endangered forests in the regions where they source paper and wood.
• Dell will work with a variety of stakeholders including the NGO community and Dell suppliers to identify and eliminate endangered forest fiber from their supply chains. Pursuant to this, Dell will:

1. Identify its fiber supply chain for all forest products including, but not limited to, paper for catalogs and other marketing materials, internal office paper, corrugated packaging, and wood used in retail products. Dell will use commercially viable, environmentally responsible suppliers.

2. Work with stakeholders to prioritize reduction of impacts on and encourage protection and sound management of endangered forests in key regions (see below). Dell will solicit information regarding on-the-ground practices from both its suppliers and the NGO community and will assist in researching potential improved sources of wood and paper.

3. Use reasonable efforts to first influence changes within and, if not successful, seek alternatives and/or phase out doing business with companies within 6 months where the supplier’s practices are proven to be inconsistent with Dell’s values and environmental goals, and which result in damage or destruction of endangered forests.

• Dell will seek partnerships with other catalogers and related paper buyers (e.g. printers, magazines) to maximize commercially viable alternatives to paper milled from endangered forests. Dell is committed to sharing best practices with other catalogers and will seek to positively influence its customers and suppliers through its leadership role.
• Dell recognizes the following priority regions for its paper conservation efforts:
• Canadian Boreal Forests
• Congo Basin Forests
• Inland Temperate Rainforests of British Columbia, and the native forests of
Indonesia and Chile
• Russian Boreal Forests
• Southeast Asian Rainforest
• U.S. National Forests
• Southern region of the U.S.

Monday, January 3, 2011

High TechNology Keflar And Fibers Make Patrol Boat With WarShip

The Taiwan-based shipbuilder has constructed six patrol boats to date, all of which use a combination of Kevlar®/E-glass in all main structures including hill and wheelhouse. Use of Kevlar® fiber/e-glass hybrid in these boats to strengthen hulls and other structures in order to reduce speed-sapping weight. “There has never been any fault with advanced composites; just a lack of understanding how to get the best out of them,” says Ken Raybould, the British consultant to DuPont that helped launch Kevlar® into the marine industry.

In his crusade for Kevlar®, Raybould scientifically addressed each of the perceived shortcomings of the fiber, such as wet-out, compression strength, water absorption, UV resistance, and handling (cutting and machining). The wet-out issue goes away with the use of E-glass/Kevlar hybrids. This also reduces overall material cost by optimizing Kevlar®’s advantages with the lower-cost E-glass in a hybrid weave. Water uptake is mostly a function of resin performance. Coatings can handle the UV issue and tools have been developed to cut Kevlar® before and after its laminated. Figure 7 shows a fast Customs boat from Spain made with Kevlar®.

Sails and High Tech Fibers
Newer sails on racing sail boats are another place where high strength fibers are becoming more prevelant. According to Doug Stewart, Production Manager at Quantum Sailmakers, “Fiber currently being used in high end sails is Carbon and Twaron. Currently in the highly competitive TP 52 class sails are 100% carbon. Low modulus carbon has great strength to weight and is very flexible fiber as long as it is not saturated in the lamination process. At this point in the process of high end sails the key is the perfect mix of fiber, pressure and heat. Not enough fiber, you have a sail that is light but will not hold its desired shape. Not enough glue, you have a sail that is light but will probably delaminate long term.

“What will the next sail making revolution bring? There is no doubt that there is another super fiber like carbon right around the corner! Mylar, the outer skin of the sail which is really used to hold the fiber and glue in place probably is the next area where we will see changes. Films will get stronger which means sailmakers will be less reliant on fiber. My opinion is that within 10 years we will see a sail just made of film. Initially very expensive and not very durable but in the high end arena of America’s Cup (AC) and TP 52s, money certainly is not the issue.”

Other high-tech fibers have yet to establish themselves in the marine market. Basalt was investigated by High Modulus, but they concluded from their testing that “ The Basalt unidirectional material was not significantly stronger or stiffer than the E-glass unidirectional.” The M-5® fiber development effort received a boost when DuPont bought a majority share of the company making the fibers marketed as having potential as an ultra-high strength, ultra-high thermal and flame resistant alternative to products currently available in the advanced fibers market.

Nova Craft Canoe has developed a laminate that combines a leading edge Kevlar®/Carbon material combined with Spectra® and applied through an infusion process. The result is a tough, rigid canoe that’s surprisingly light and easy to handle. Once plasma-treated surfacing helped improve resin adhesion, Spectra® has mostly been limited to canoe applications. So although carbon and Kevlar® have made significant inroads into the marine composites world, E-glass remains the workhorse of the industry. Certainly when weight
is at a premium, Kevlar® or carbon fiber laminates can be justified. For stiffness-limited designs, carbon unidirecitonals can help optimize a laminate.

High Technology Modulus Carbon And Polymers

High Modulus

The High Modulus Company of New Zealand is a world-leading supplier of composite technology and structural engineering services to the marine industry. I asked Michael Eaglen, Vice President of Engineering about recent projects they’re working on that involve carbon fibers. “The first is a 37m (121') 60-knot vacuum infused carbon/epoxy/foam motoryacht. The designer is Rob Humphreys Yacht Design in England; the builder is McMullen and Wing in New Zealand. This project used quite a bit of ultra high modulus fiber for very light inside skin of deck panels and the like.

“The second is a 40m (130') luxury day-sailor in prepreg carbon with foam and honeycomb cores. The designer is Javier Soto Acebal in Argentina; the builder is Wally in Italy. The project uses quite a bit of intermediate-modulus fiber in the hull and deck shells for global stiffness. It also has a combination of standard, intermediate and high modulus fiber in the rudder stock.

“Finally we are currently doing a lot of work with Rhebergen Composites in Amsterdam on mast structures for very large (80-120m) motoryachts. These are primarily governed by their vibrational behavior, so we use increasingly high modulus carbon fibers (mostly M46J and HS40) to lift stiffness without increasing weight in order to tune the natural frequencies of the structure.”


The most f common aramid fiber is Kevlar® developed by DuPont. This is the predominant organic reinforcing fiber, whose use dates to the early 1970s as a replacement for steel belting in tires. The outstanding features of aramids are low weight, high tensile strength and modulus, impact and fatigue resistance, and weaveability.

Compressive performance of aramids is not as good as glass, as they show nonlinear ductile behavior at low strain values. Water absorption of un-impregnated Kevlar® 49 is greater than other reinforcements, although ultra-high modulus Kevlar® 149 absorbs almost two thirds less than Kevlar® 49. The unique characteristics of aramids can best be exploited if appropriate weave style and handling techniques are used.

High-Tech Fibers Glass And Carbon For M-Ship Applications

The majority of improvements in marine composite construction over the last fifty years have been through better resin chemistry. However, fibers have also played an important roll in the development of advanced composite laminates for marine applications. Specifically, weight, strength and stiffness optimization can be enhanced by using fibers with properties superior to E-glass. However, what we’ve found is that often a judicious use of high strength and/or modulus materials in combination with E–glass can often result in an efficient, cost-effective composite structure.

Glass fibers account for over 90% of the fibers used in reinforced plastics because they are inexpensive to produce and have relatively good strength to weight characteristics.  Additionally, glass fibers exhibit good chemical resistance and processability. The excellent tensile strength of glass fibers, however, may deteriorate when loads are applied for long periods of time E-glass (lime aluminum borosilicate) is the most common reinforcement used in marine laminates because of its good strength properties and resistance to water degradation. S-glass (silicon dioxide, aluminum and magnesium oxides) exhibits about one third better tensile strength, and in general, demonstrates better fatigue resistance. Because the cost for this variety of glass
fiber is about three to four times that of E-glass we don’t see it used too much in the marine industry.

The terms “carbon” and “graphite” fibers are typically used interchangeably, although graphite technically refers to fibers that are greater than 99% carbon composition versus 93 to 95% for PAN-base fibers. All continuous carbon fibers produced to date are made from organic precursors, which in addition to PAN (polyacrylonitrile), include rayon and pitches, with the latter two generally used for low modulus fibers. Carbon fibers offer the highest strength and stiffness of all commonly used reinforcement fibers. The fibers are

not subject to stress rupture or stress corrosion, as with glass and aramids. High temperature performance is particularly outstanding. The major drawback to the PANbase fibers is their relative cost, which is a function of high precursor costs and an energy intensive manufacturing process.

Carbon fiber use for marine structures is most useful for designs that are limited by how stiff we can make them, such as long, slender bodies that don’t have much Section Modulus. That’s why catamarans and trimarans often use carbon. Vessels with a lot of surface area, such as hovercrafts or the M-Ship concept also can benefit from sandwich laminates with carbon skins. Carbon is also used exclusively for composite masts,
rudder posts, and other sailboat hardware as well as in the caps of stringers when height of the stringer is limited.

The Earthrace project was established to break the outright world record for circumnavigating the globe in a powerboat, which currently stands at 75 days, but has a loftier goal of promoting the use of renewable fuel. Circumnavigating the globe is the world’s longest race at 24,000 nautical miles, and represents the pinnacle of powerboat challenges. The Earthrace team plans to make this trip in 65 days using only bio-diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as canola and rape, hoping that the high profile nature of the project will significantly raise awareness about the use of sustainable resources.

M-Ship has built The carbon fiber Stiletto, a Twin M hull vessel that is 80 ft in length with a 40 ft beam. The vessel's draft fully loaded is 3 ft and is designed for a speed of 50-60 kts. Its superior performance is based on M Ship Co.'s proprietary, globally-patented technology that recaptures the bow wave to create an air cushion for more efficient planning. The M80 Stiletto is also notable because it is the largest U.S. Naval vessel
built using carbon fiber composite and epoxy building techniques, which yields a very light, but strong hull. Figure 2 shows the M80 underway with a low radar cross signature.

Thales Manufacturer and Supplier Bae System a Long The world's Largest Technology Military

BAE Systems is extensively involved in the naval surveillance radar world via its Insyte (Integrated Systems Technologies) business unit. The company’s SAMPSON Sband multifunction radar equips the Royal Navy’s Type-45 Daring class destroyers (where the radar is connected to a BAE Systems Insyte CMS). Moreover, SAMPSON provides the basis for the ARTISAN (Advanced Radar Target Indication Situational Awareness and Navigation) radar which is earmarked for the Senior Service’s future Queen-Elizabeth class aircraft carriers, and for retrofit onto the HMS Ocean amphibious support ship, the Type-23 Duke class frigates and Albion class assault vessels for use with the latter ships’ BAE Systems ADAWS-2000 CMS. SAMPSON, which has a range of up to 400 km (216 nm), uses Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology which allows it to broadcast across a range of frequencies which can make it comparatively difficult to intercept.

Saab,meanwhile, has been very successful at leveraging technology developed for land systems into its naval product line. One example is the company’s Sea Giraffe Agile Multi-Beam radar which is descended from
the Giraffe air defence radar, itself a component of the firm’s BAMSE RBS-23 anti-aircraft missile system. The Sea Giraffe is already deployed on the Baynunah class corvettes used by the United Arab Emirates navy, and is a two-dimensional system with a compact size and a light weight which sweeps at 60 revolutions-per-minute. Sea Giraffe has been produced in several versions including the Mod.C, which has a 0-70° search angle of elevation, and a particularly good capability against sea-skimming missile targets and
small boats.

For small vessels performing mine countermeasures work and offshore patrol, Saab’s Sea Giraffe LT version maintains the performance of the Mod.C in a package which can easily equip diminutive vessels, thanks to its low weight of 250Kg (551lb). Sea Giraffe has been selected for the ANZAC-class frigates operated by the Royal New Zealand Navy which have also seen their Saab 9LV CMS capabilities being upgraded. The 9LV can connect a vessel’s sensors, weapons and communications to provide an instant view for the ships’ personnel of their vessels’ status, using open architecture to provide a plug-and-play capability for these systems.

Although arguably not a major part of EADS’ business, the company does, nevertheless, produce a surveillance radar product in the guise of its C-band (4-8 Ghz) TRS-3D multifunction surveillance radar which has a range of 200Km. Envisaged for smaller vessels such as patrol ships and corvettes, EADS has hit upon a winning formula with a product that has secured orders from Denmark, Finland, Germany, Malaysia, Norway, Spain and the United States. Like EADS, Terma of Denmark has carved a niche as a provider of
specialist naval surveillance radar built around their Scanter family of products Both the Scanter-6000 and
Scanter-4100 are X-band (8-12GHz) 2D radar which are optimized to detect small targets and have a
range of up to 185Km.

The choice of X-band is important as it allows the use of a relatively small antenna ensuring that the radar remains light weight, while also providing a decent surveillance range. One of the most famous naval CMS and radar combinations in service today is Lockheed Martin’s Aegis product. Built around the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar, Aegis can provide simultaneous surveillance information, fire control for guns and missiles,
plus multiple target tracking. Aegis is in extensive use globally, deployed on the Royal Norwegian Navy’s Fridtjof Namsenclass anti-submarine frigates, which use the AN/SPY-1F radar, designed with smaller
antennae compared to the AN/SPY-1D radar used by the Armada Española (Spanish Navy) Alvaro de Bazan class multi-purpose frigates; and the US Navy’s Arleigh-Burke class, South Korea’s King Sejong the Great class and Japan’s Atago class destroyers. The AN/SPY-1 has also been selected by the Australian and Turkish navies, and the company is working on the AN/SPY-1K version designed for smaller vessels such as corvettes.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Raytheon Anschütz Navigation Systems for Korean Submarines And COBRA Radar in the UAE

Raytheon Anschütz has been awarded a contract for navigation and control systems for the six batch 2 type 214 submarines for the Republic of Korea Navy (RoKN), which have been contracted with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems’shipyard HDW. The boats will be built at Daewoo Shipbuilding and Hyundai Heavy Industries in Korea.

Under the terms of the contract Raytheon Anschütz will supply a navigation data management system, navigation consoles with radar and WECDIS function as well as battery monitoring, mast control, various sensors and inertial navigation systems. As the core component of the integrated solution, the data management collects and pre-processes various data from the sensors in real time in order to distribute them within the system.

The scope of the contract also covers customer-specific development, programme and obsolescence
management, documentation (integrated logistic support), testing and setting to work. In support of cost effectiveness and availability the navigation and control system features a combination of various degradable navigation sensors. Raytheon Anschütz can refer to a solid reputation in system design and high accuracy
standards, which have been proven during sea-trials of former submarine projects. Meanwhile Raytheon Anschütz has equipped more than 100 submarines worldwide, including the German Navy’s latest fleet of Class U212A submarine.

First Export Success for the COBRA Radar in the UAE

Art International EWIV has been awarded a contract from the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces for the supply and commissioning of 3 Counter Battery Radars (COBRA). The COBRA high mobility weapon
location radar will protect UAE Armed Forces on the move. COBRA was developed for France, Germany and UK as the first multifunctional counter battery radar in the world with a fully active phased array antenna, enabling accurate multiple targets detection within a short reaction time. Its modular architecture provides
high reliability and system availability.

COBRA Radar system of the German Army on MAN 8 x 8 truck.

During all live firing trials COBRA achieved performance values (location range as well as detection and location accuracy) in excess of the COBRA specifications. Deployed in several out-of-area operations including UN missions, the German systems are involved in the Defence Against Mortar Attacks (DAMA) initiative that is part of the NATO Conference of National Armament Directors’ Programmes of Work for the Defence against Terrorism. French systems are in operation in Lebanon, British systems in Iraq.

Euro-Art International EWIV was formed in 2007 as a European Economic Interest Group and responsible for global marketing and sales of the COBRA system (except OCCAR). The Euro-Art International members are EADSDeutschland GmbH (Munich, Germany) and Thales Air Systems S.A.

Monday, November 22, 2010

Simple Energy Saving Tips Water Heaters

Simple energy-saving tips

Follow these simple tips to control your water heating costs:

• Reduce the temperature setting on your water heater to 120°F, or to 140°F if you have an automatic dishwasher without an internal heater. Check your owner’s manual for manufacturer recommendations.

 • Use cool or cold water when washing clothes.

• Take showers lasting five minutes or less, rather than baths. Short showers use less hot water than baths.

• Fix leaky faucets to prevent hot water from being wasted.

• Run the dishwasher only when full.

• Most manufacturers recommend periodic draining of new water heaters to prevent sediment build-up at the bottom of the tank, which can cause a water heater to become noisy and less efficient. For older water heaters, most manufacturers recommend not draining them. Sediment build-up probably won’t be removed, and disturbing older plumbing fixtures on the tank may damage them or create water leaks. Follow all manufacturer instructions when draining your water heater to prevent damage to the appliance.

• When you go on vacation, turn the control knob on your gas water heater to the “Pilot” or “Vacation” position. If you have an electric water heater, shut if off at the circuit breaker.

Conservation products

Insulating blankets help minimize heat loss and can reduce operating costs by 9%. Many newer models are properly insulated and may not need a blanket. Check with the manufacturer to determine if an insulation blanket should be installed. If you do install a blanket, don’t cover the inspection plate with the blanket — it could be a fire hazard. You can also help keep the heat in the water by insulating all the hot plumbing lines you can get to (and the cold line back three feet from the heater). Use a good-quality plastic or rubber foam at least 3⁄4 inch thick. Do not cover unions or fittings.

Install low-flow shower heads

Low-flow shower heads help you save in two ways: they reduce the amount of hot water you use when showering, thus lowering heating costs; and they reduce overall water usage, which helps to lower your water bill. Flow restrictors can also be installed in faucets throughout your home to further reduce water heating costs.

Safety practices Water Heaters

All gas appliances have a main burner flame and many also have a pilot flame. To reduce the risk of flammable vapors being ignited by these flames, follow these tips:

• Water heaters installed in garages must be elevated so the pilot or other source of ignition is a minimum of 18 inches above the floor or installed per local building codes and the manufacturers’ installation instructions.

• Never store or use flammable products such as gasoline, paint thinner, or cleaning products in the same room or near any gas or heat-producing appliance.

Earthquakes can cause improperly secured water heaters to move or topple. To help prevent this, strap it firmly to the wall studs in two places the upper and lower one-third of the tank  with heavy bolts and metal tape. Be sure to place the lower strap at least four inches above the thermostat controls. Kits are often available at your local hardware store. Lower water heater temperature to prevent scalding accidents.
Water temperatures above 125°F can cause severe burns or even death.