Showing posts with label SATELLITE AND RADAR. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SATELLITE AND RADAR. Show all posts

Monday, January 3, 2011

Variant Type Radar High Technology In The World By Raytheon

Like ITT Corporation, Raytheon produces radars which have been in use for a number of years, namely the AN/SPS-49 2D long range air-search system, which entered service in 1975. This D-band product, which is ideal for long-range air surveillance, offers a detection range of up to 460Km. Joining the AN/SPS-49 is the company’s recentlyunveiled SPY-5 which is designed for ships displacing under 1,000 tonnes. The product is strongly expected to equip the G class (ex- Oliver Hazard Perry class) frigates of the Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri (Turkish Navy). Moreover, Raytheon also has the distinction of produicing the first AESA system in service with the US Navy, namely the Dual Band Radar which combines the S-band Volume Search Radar and X-band AN/SPY- 3Multifunction Radar, both will be deployed as part of the Zumwalt class destroyer programme for the US Navy.

The rationale behind the use of two different frequency ranges is to utilise the X-band radar for horizon search, with the S-band system being used for searches above the horizon. Raytheon is not only tasked with designing and manufacturing radar, the company also provides the Advanced Combat Direction System (ACDS) CMS installed on the Nimitz-class aircraft carriers of the US Navy, along with the Wasp-class amphibious support ships and the remaining Tarawa class LPDs. The ACDS is currently being replaced by the Ship Self-Defense System, also produced by Raytheon, which knits a vessel’s existing sensors and weapons together using Linux-based sytems architecture to give the ship’s CMS a similar performance
to that found on the Aegis combat management system.

Finally, no discussion of naval radar would be complete without mentinoing Israel’s Elta Systems portfolio. The company’s catalogue in this regard includes the Xband EL/M-2228 medium-range surveillance
radar designed for small- and mediumsized craft, which can perform air surveillance up to 50Km from the vessel. The Israeli Navy is currently in the process of replacing the EL/M-2228 with Elta’s EL/M-2258 Sband Advanced Lightweight Phased Array product which the company claims is the world’s first fully digital naval radar. The EL.M-2258 is built around a lightweight antenna weighing crica seven tonnes. A second
S-band product is manufactured by the company in the form of the EL/M-2258 3D Surveillance and Threat Alert Radar designed for frigates and corvettes for the detection of air and surface threats, while the
EL/M-2248 solid state conformal phased array is designed for small-sized ships such as offshore Patrol Vessels.

As far as the future of naval radar is concerned, the US Navy is moving ahead with developing the next generation via concept study contracts which have been awarded to Lockheed Martin and Raytheon for the
development of tomorrow’s air and missile defence radar. These studies will no doubt work towards further reducing the weight of future naval radar, while at the same time ensuring their capability increases, particularly
as far as ballistic and anti-shipping missiles are concerned, and regarding the detection of small targets such as jet skis and inflatable boats which, as the USS Cole attack in Yemen in October 2000 illustrated, are becoming the sea-borne terrorist’s weapon of choice.

THALES IS One of The World’s Major Suppliers of Naval Radar and CMS Products.

The Thales firm produces the Herakles radar used on the Marine Nationale (French Navy) FREMM (Fregate multi-mission) multi-mission frigates. Herakles is a three-dimensional, Sband 3-4 GHz radar which has a range of up to 80Km against surface targets, and 250Km for air threats. The radar provides simulateous air and surface search, detection of missiles and fire control for the vessels’ weapons. Together with its electro-opitcal systems and communications, the radar is linked to the ships’ CMS which is based on DCNS’s SENIT family.

A version of SENIT, known as SENIT-8, outfits the Franco-Italian Horizon-class frigates which also deploy a G-band 4-6GHz EMPAR multi-function phased array radar, plus an L-band (1-2Ghz), Thales/Selex S1850 air and surface search radar, mounted on the vessels’ aft mast and a Selex RASS S-band radar positioned on the forward mast, along with the EMPAR system. In addition to producing radar, Selex has the responsibility for manufacturing CMS suites, most notably the Italian Navy’s IPN family of systems.

Like Selex, Thales also manufactures CMS products such as the firm’s TACTICOS family. Among other vessels, TACTICOS has been selected for the SIGMA (Ship Integrated Geometrical Modularity) frigates of the Royal Moroccan Navy. Using an open systems architecture, TACTICOS is scalable to vessels of all sizes, from missile boats up to destroyers and frigates. The CMS fuses together information from radar, electro-optical and sonar systems to provide a detailed picture of the immediate environment, handling
up to 1,500 tracks simultaneously.

Another of Thales’s CMS products is the SEWACO-XI which equips the De Zeven Provinciën class frigates of the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy). SEWACO is built around the company’s TACTICOS (see above) product. Originally developed for the Royal Netherlands Navy Tromp class frigates which were nicknamed ‘Kojak’ because of their large, smooth radome positioned aft of the bridge, SEWACO has been cycled through various versions in Dutch service culminating in the current SEWACO-XI configuration.

Thales is also providing radar for the SIGMA vessels in the form of the S-band SMART-S Mk.2 surveillance radar (which also equips the German Navy’s Type-123 Brandenburg class frigates where it is linked to an
Atlas Elektronick/ Paramax SATIR CMS. Optimized for surface com batants such as frigates, destroyers and
Landing Platform Docks (LPDs), the SMARTS has a range of up to 250Km. In addition, the company builds the SMART-L radar offering up to 400Km of coverage and an elevation angle of up to 70°. In conjunction with ITT Corporation, Thales is marketing the radar in the United States for the US Navy and Coast Guard applications, and also for possible Foreign Military Sales from that country.

The SMART-L is essentially a SMART-S, but with a lighter weight and smaller size. A so called Extended Long Range module is available for the SMART-L which increases the radar’s ‘already impressive range’ according to official Thales literature. SMART-L has proven to be a popular product, selling to the German,
Danish and Korean navies.

Thursday, December 30, 2010

NASA Technology Center to Develop Sensor for Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission

The Space Systems Company’s Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has been named to lead development of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)-Lo sensor for the NASA Small Explorer mission. The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) awarded the contract to the ATC. IBEX is the first mission designed to globally image the extreme edge of our solar system. Launch of the IBEX spacecraft is scheduled for 2008.

IBEX-Lo is one of two sensors on the Small Explorer spacecraft that will measure neutral atoms created by the interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium the gas, dust and radiation environment between the stars. These neutral atoms are created beyond the orbit of Pluto and then enter our solar system. The energy bands are split into two ranges, one measured by IBEX-Lo and the other by IBEX-Hi. A team at Los Alamos National Laboratory and SwRI will build the IBEX-Hi sensor.

The IBEX spacecraft will be in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth, where it will make all-sky “images” of the arriving neutral atoms every six months for two years. Dr. Stephen A. Fuselier will be the lead investigator
for IBEX-Lo and Eric Hertzberg will serve as the lead engineer. Both are members of the ATC’s Space Physics Department. The overall project is under the direction of the principal investigator, Dr. Dave McComas at SwRI.

“It’s like sitting inside a giant bubble and getting a picture of the walls from the inside out,” explains Dr. Fuselier. “The continuous wind from the Sun the solar wind keeps the bubble inflated, and the edges of our solar system are defined by the interaction between this wind and the surrounding interstellar medium. By measuring the number of arriving neutral atoms at a variety of energies, we can determine many of the properties of the boundaries of our solar system.”

An appreciation of the physics that underlies the interstellar boundary will allow scientists to better understand how the out-flowing solar wind mediates the in-flowing radiation from the galaxy. The regula Advanced Technology Center to develop sensor for Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission freeze, many of the same chemical compounds that preceded life on Earth. The Huygens descent and touchdown is the most distant descent by a robotic probe ever attempted on another object in the solar system. Over the course of the orbital mission, Cassini will have executed 45 flybys of Titan, coming as close as approximately 590 miles above the surface.

This will permit high-resolution mapping of the moon’s surface with an imaging radar instrument that can see through the opaque haze of Titan’s upper atmosphere. The second largest planet in our solar system (after Jupiter), Saturn serves as a natural laboratory to better understand the formation of our solar system
five billion years ago because the planet and its rings are a close analog to the disc of gas and dust surrounding
the nascent Sun that formed the planets. Detailed knowledge of the dynamics of interactions among Saturn’s elaborate rings and numerous moons will provide valuable data for understanding how each of the solar system’s planets evolved.

The Cassini spacecraft was launched on a Lockheed Martin-built Air Force Titan IV/Centaur rocket in 1997. The Cassini propulsion module also built by Lockheed Martin is the largest U.S. planetary spacecraft propulsion system ever built. It was fired 17 times en route to Saturn and will be ignited approximately 150 more times before the end of the mission. In addition to DISR, the Titan IV/Centaur and the propulsion system, Lockheed Martin designed and built the three radioisotope thermoelectric generators that power spacecraft systems. tion of this radiation could have affected the formation and evolution of life on Earth, and thus might provide a means for examining the probability of life around other stars.

Additionally, at such boundaries roughly 90 percent of cosmic radiation is deflected away from the inner solar system, so by understanding their properties scientists will be better able to model the process that may have provided an environment favorable for life on this planet. The IBEX-Lo sensor will be built by a team of scientists and engineers at the ATC in Palo Alto, Calif., the University of New Hampshire in Durham, N.H., SwRI in San Antonio, Tx., and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. After the sensor is integrated at the ATC, it will be calibrated at the University of Bern in Switzerland.

The Explorer Program is designed to provide frequent, low-cost access to space for physics and astronomy missions with small to mid-sized spacecraft. NASA has successfully launched six Small Explorer missions since 1992. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center manages the Explorer Program for the Science Mission Directorate.

Atlas III Team as NRO Payload is Delivered On Orbit By U.S Defense Security

It was touch and go from the moment of the first weather forecast. The launch opportunity was dismal only five percent just eight hours before liftoff. But, by the time midnight rolled around, the notoriously dynamic Florida weather had settled down. The 2:41 a.m. launch February 3 provided a spectacular sight once the rocket cleared the pad and broke through the fog bank into the night sky.

After the booster completed its job and the Centaur upper stage and National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) satellite payload went into a “parking” orbit, the Atlas team paid a nostalgic farewell to the last of the “steel balloon” Atlases, designed with a thin pressurized stainless steel structure, and Launch Complex 36. Following a countdown from Michael Gass, vice president and general manager, Space Transportation, and Jim Sponnick, Atlas program vice president, the powerful searchlights illuminating both pads at Complex 36 went dark, symbolizing the end of launch operations from a pad that has made space history. “Ladies and gentlemen, as the lights go out on Complex 36, a new day will dawn shortly at Complex 41 and on the West Coast at Space Launch Complex 3 East,” said Gass. “Our team is now focused on expanding the Atlas legacy, daring to do the difficult and staying steadfast to one mission at a time.”

Commemorations, farewells and toasts notwithstanding, the mission to launch a national security payload was a complete success, thanks to launch management by International Launch Services (ILS) and a well-oiled Atlas team machine. Col. Chip Zakrzewski, director of the NRO’s Office of Space Launch, the customer for this launch, offered these words: “Five months and a few days ago, we launched a national security payload
for the National Reconnaissance Office off the last Atlas IIAS.

Tonight we launched another national security payload off the last IIIB from Complex 36. Although only a few will know the capability that has been put on orbit in these two missions, all those who cherish and strive for freedom will realize the benefits. To the Lockheed Martin team, to the whole Atlas team, farewell to the Atlas
IIIB and farewell to Complex 36.”

XSS-11 Autonomous Satellite Launched For U.S Military

Like its predecessor XSS‐10, XSS‐11 is part of the Experimental Spacecraft System series (XSS). XSS consists of a small fleet of microsatellites designed and operated by the Air Force Research Laboratory based in Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. These microsats are expected to demonstrate technologies and procedures for inspection, maintenance, and repair services for orbiting spacecraft. The objective is to provide these various services at lower cost and more quickly than an alternative program in which a
replacement platform is launched from Earth. The XSS program will focus on close‐proximity inspection,
responsive, on‐orbit and beyond‐orbit services, and maintenance and repair activities that will extend the
life and performance of orbital assets at lower cost than ground based programs.

XSS‐11 was designed to autonomously plan and rendezvous with space objects. This capability is considered another “tool” for the Air Force’s space toolbox. "We're a lab. Our job is to demonstrate technologies," Harold "Vern" Baker, AFRL's XSS‐11 program manager said, referring to AFRL. According to Baker, “The job of XSS‐11 is to add another tool to the tool box that military space commanders can consider incorporating. There are a number of possibilities for servicing, inspection, repair...there's just a wide list." XSS‐11 was expected to conduct rendezvous maneuvers with six to eight objects, the first of which was the upper stage of the Minotaur rocket that carried it into space. These maneuvers would allow the Air Force to test the feasibility of servicing and inspecting military satellites in space, including its own. Baker’s team also helped the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) officials develop rendezvous scenarios for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

NASA is also interested in using proximity maneuvering technology and spacecraft autonomy software for
a Mars‐sample‐return mission, so that a lander would be able to dock autonomously with a mother ship
after a visit to the surface. Spacecraft autonomy is one of the requirements set forth in President George
W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration (VSE).

The Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) is poised to launch The eXperimental Spacecraft System (XSS-11) from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., later this spring, setting the stage for the spacecraft’s mission to advance technologies and techniques to increase the level of autonomy, guidance and safety for microsatellites. Space Systems Company in Denver, Colo., designed and developed the XSS-11 vehicle. AFRL, SSC and Jackson & Tull built and tested the XSS-11 spacecraft
at VS’s Aerospace Engineering Facility at Kirtland AFB, N.M. After successful system integration and testing, the vehicle was transported to Vandenberg where it was mated with the Minotaur launch vehicle.
“This vehicle is a very capable spacecraft given its size, weight and power constraints,” said Kevin Rummell,
XSS-11 program manager for Space Systems Company. “XSS-11 will push the state of the possible for autonomous vehicle operations in support of the Air Force’s mission needs.”

The XSS-11 vehicle consists of electrical/mechanical and sensor subsystems necessary to achieve mission
requirements. The space flight phase of the program will start with launch and early on-orbit testing of the various subsystems and vehicle capabilities. After completing the initial checkouts, the XSS-11 vehicle will be commanded to plan and execute various sortie profiles that are intended to exercise the mission planning and command and control aspects of the mission. The XSS-11 mission has been designed to support one
year of on-orbit operations.

Friday, December 10, 2010

Global Positioning System (GPS) And Global Broadcast Service (GBS)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Provide highly accurate positioning, navigation, and timing data (globally, 24 hours a day, and in any type of weather) to an unlimited number of civil users and authorized military users.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is comprised of three segments: space segment, control segment, and user segment. The space segment consists of 24 or more satellites in six orbital planes, traveling in semi-synchronous (12-hour) orbits around the earth. The control segment, sometimes referred to as the ground segment, consists of a Master Control Station (MCS), a Back-Up MCS (BMCS), six dedicated monitor stations, five ground antennas (four dedicated and one shared), and eight National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) monitor stations. The user segment includes the myriad of civil and military GPS receivers used for air, land, sea, and space applications. The GPS is commanded and controlled by Air Force Space Command, 2nd Space Operations Squadron at Schriever AFB, CO.

Global Broadcast Service (GBS)

  Provide global broadcast of high-volume, high-speed information to deployed forces.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is comprised of three segments: space segment, control segment, and user segment. The space segment consists of 24 or more satellites in six orbital planes, traveling in semi-synchronous (12-hour) orbits around the earth. The control segment, sometimes referred to as the ground segment, consists of a Master Control Station (MCS), a Back-Up MCS (BMCS), six dedicated monitor stations, five ground antennas (four dedicated and one shared), and eight National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) monitor stations. The user segment includes the myriad of civil and military GPS receivers used for air, land, sea, and space applications. The GPS is commanded and controlled by Air Force Space Command, 2nd Space Operations Squadron at Schriever AFB, CO.


This NASA produced short film describes the Global Positioning System. It is a great summary and can be used to augment the Galaxy Explorers Mission Plan on GPS.

Defense Support Program (DSP) And Distributed Mission Operations (DMO) Network System

Defense Support Program (DSP)

Provide early detection and warning of missile launches and nuclear explosions to National Command Authorities and operational commands. The satellite constellation has been the cornerstone of North America’s early warning system for more than 30 years.

DSP satellites orbit the earth about 35,780 kilometers over the equator in geosynchronous orbits. They use infrared sensors to detect heat from missile and booster plumes against the earth’s background. Typically, DSP satellites were launched into geosynchronous earth orbit on a Titan IV booster and inertial upper stage combination. However, one DSP satellite was launched using the space shuttle on mission STS-44 (Nov. 24, 1991). The next and final DSP satellite is scheduled for launch on the new Evolved Expendable Launch
Vehicle Delta IV, Heavy in FY07.

Distributed Mission Operations (DMO)

Provide a networked combat training and mission rehearsal capability that will develop the warfighter’s individual and team skills to accomplish the complex operations and functions necessary for today’s
ground, air, and space operations.

An Air Force readiness capability, interconnecting high-fidelity aircrew training devices, C2, and ISR simulators in a realistic, immersive training environment via telecommunications networks. It provides high-fidelity on-demand training at warfighter locations worldwide. DMO focuses on warfighter individual and team skills. It is based on scalable packages from operational to strategic level of war. DMO allows
warfighters to train as teams while remaining at home stations, reducing Ops Tempo and travel costs. DMO will provide a fully integrated Air and Space component of the Joint National Training Capability (JNTC). It will enable joint, inter-service/agency, and Air Force exercises, experiments, wargames, RDT&E and mission rehearsal as the supporting networks and systems evolve.

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) And Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) III

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

Provide global visible and infrared cloud cover imagery and other atmospheric, oceanographic, land surface, and space environment data to support multi-service requirements and battlespace characterization everywhere that U.S. forces operate.

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) designs, builds, launches, and maintains satellites monitoring the meteorological, oceanographic,terrestrial and solar environments. Using the DMSP data, military weather forecasters can detect developing patterns of weather and track existing weather systems over remote areas, including the presence of severe thunderstorms, dust storms, hurricanes, and typhoons. This data is vital to the effective employment of forces and weapon systems worldwide. The program includes five satellites flying in two sun-synchronous orbits.

The primary weather sensor on DMSP is the Operational Linescan System, which provides continuous visual and infrared imagery of cloud cover over an area 1,600 nautical miles wide. Additional satellite sensors measure atmospheric vertical profiles of moisture and temperature, sea surface winds, and the presence of soil moisture. The DMSP satellites also measure space environment charged particles and electromagnetic fields to assess the impact of the ionosphere on ballistic-missile early warning radar systems, electrical grids, satellite operations, and long-range communications.

Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) III

Provide super-high freqency satellite communications to troops in the field as well as commanders at multiple locations worldwide.

The Defense Satellite Communications Systems (DSCS) is the workhorse of military satellite communications. The system provides uninterrupted secure voice and high rate data communications to DoD users for monitoring events and deploying and sustaining forces anywhere in the world. It is used for high-priority command and control communication such as the exchange of wartime information between defense officials and battlefield commanders. The military also uses DSCS to transmit space operations and early warning data to various systems and users.

The system consists of nine Phase III DSCS satellites that orbit the earth at an altitude of more than 22,000 miles. Each satellite uses six super high frequency transponder channels capable of providing secure voice and high data rate communications. The system also features a single-channel transponder for disseminating emergency action and force direction messages to nuclear-capable forces. The single steerable dish antenna
provides an increased power spot beam which can be tailored to suit the needs of different size user terminals. DSCS satellites can resist jamming and consistently exceed their 10 year design life. DSCS users operate on the ground, at sea, or in the air. Members of the 50th Space Wing’s 3rd Space Operations Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base, CO, provide satellite command and control support for all DSCS satellites.

Combatant Commanders Integrated Command and Control System Integreted Radar System

Combatant Commanders Integrated Command and Control System (CCIC2S)

Provide fixed command and control (C2) capabilities to support NORAD’S commander in executing aerospace warning and control missions; support the USSTRATCOM commander in executing space operations, and coordinate global missile defense missions, including support to other combatant commanders.

The Combatant Commanders Integrated Command and Control System (CCIC2S) is the operational-level C2 system for Air Force space systems. For NORAD, CCIC2S provides the capabilities to command and control NORAD regions and sectors; for USSTRATCOM, CCIC2S provides the capabilities to command and control service components. These components include: Air Force component to USSTRATCOM [JSpOC]; Naval Networks and Space Operations Command [NNSOC]; U.S. Army Space and Missile
Defense Command/Army Strategic Command [SMDC/ARSTRAT]; and space wings and units in support of the space operations mission. In addition, CCIC2S capabilities support the Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) air defense and space operations situational requirements of the government of Canada, combatant commanders, governmental agencies, and international and commercial partners.
The system will incorporate a standards-based approach, including Network Centric Enterprise Services. The system can be leveraged for space use. The Single Integrated Space Picture (SISP) is a project under CCIC2S and will provide command and control of space forces.

Combat Surviv or Evader Locator (CSEL)

Provide enhanced, 24 hour, assured, two way, secure combat search and rescue satellite communication and location capabilities.

The Combat Survivor Evader Locator (CSEL) is an Air Force-led joint program that uses precise GPS positioning and advanced anti-spoofing technologies to provide a reliable and accurate survivor location, an optimized waveform to reduce detectability, and increased probability of collection by national assets. CSEL replaces the antiquated PRC-90/-112 survivor radios with a new over-the-horizon (OTH), end-to-end system that provides assured 24-hour, two-way, secure satellite communications along with military GPS that includes anti-jamming and anti-spoofing. CSEL utilizes the international search and rescue satellite system (SARSAT) for polar-area over-the-horizon (OTH) data communications. With these new capabilities, CSEL will increase rescue force success rates in ongoing contingency operations, providing rapid and accurate location and authentication of survivor/evaders in minutes, compared to what can take days today. CSEL includes three segments: hand-held radio, OTH satellite communications, and search and rescue center computer application.



Collect, process, exploit, and disseminate data, information, and intelligence from Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) sensors such as the U-2, Global Hawk, Predator, and others.

The AN/GSQ-272 Air Force Distributed Common Ground System (AF DCGS) is a network centric weapon system capable of tasking ISR sensors and receiving, processing, exploiting, and disseminating data and information from airborne, national, and commercial platforms and sensors. This weapon system consists of numerous Active Duty, Air National Guard, and mission-partner sites, interconnected by a robust communications structure that enables collaborative reachback ISR operations. AF DCGS operators correlate collected imagery intelligence, signals intelligence, and measurement and signatures intelligence data to provide decision-quality information directly to the Joint Task Force and below, including significant support to timecritical targeting operations.

AN/USQ -163 Falconer Air and Space Operations Center Weapon System (AOC-WS )

Provide Joint/Combined Force Air Component Commander’s (JFACC/CFACC’s) primary tool for commanding air and space power.

The AN/USQ-163 Falconer Air and Space Operations Center Weapon System (AOC-WS) is the senior element of the Theater Air Control System. The JFACC/CFACC uses the system for planning, executing and assessing theater-wide air and space operations. The AOC-WS develops operational strategy and planning documents. It also disseminates tasking orders, executes day-to-day peacetime and combat air and space
operations, and provides rapid reaction to immediate situations by exercising positive control of friendly forces.

Program Status Future Upgrades: Fielding Increment 10.1; Pre-Milestone B for Increment 10.2 Increment 10.2: Net Ready Compliance, Improved Collaboration, Joint Air Operations Plan and Joint Air Execution
Plan linked to assessment; Reduction of decision support process cycle times; Decision quality information; Automate capability to support integrated air and space effects-based dynamic strategy development and assessment ; Effectively deconflict airspace in Air Tasking Order planning and execution ; C2 Constellation Net capabilities to manage, protect, and exchange information with joint, allied, and coalition military and civil nodes; Standard common data model and IM strategy to enable data association and information persistence and sharing within and beyond the AOC WS; Integrated system and management of network resources;
Integrated automated support for IPB for air and space operations planning; Improved coalition interoperability; Information and functionality sharing

Air Force Combat Identification (AFCID) And Air Force Satellite Control Network

Air Force Combat Identification (AFCID)
Air Force Combat Identification (AFCID) is a family of radar, laser, and beacon systems designed to positively identify friend and foe on the battlefield. The goal of the effort is to accelerate the transition of advanced Combat Identification (CID) technologies into tactical weapons systems (fighter, bomber, Command, Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C2ISR) platforms). Technologies include cooperative systems where the target voluntarily identifies itself as a friend and noncooperative systems, where the target has to be identified. A cooperative system under development is the Mark XIIA Mode 5 secure Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator/ transponder system. In the non-cooperative area, several efforts are pursuing air-to-ground, air-to-air, and ground-to-air identification systems that match radar or laser signatures of suspected enemy equipment with a signature database ofknown equipment to positively identify targets as friend or foe.

Air Force Sa telli te Control Network

Enable deployment, checkout, and flight of operational Air Force, national, allied, and research and development satellites.

The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) is the Nation’s only high-power, 24/7 global network operating Department of Defense (DoD), national, civil, and allied satellites in any orbit. Capability is provided through a global system of control centers, remote tracking stations, and communications links. The network enables satellite telemetry, tracking and commanding, and provides high-power uplink capability for anomaly resolution and satellite emergencies. The AFSCN is required for all DoD launch and early orbit operations.

Size: Eight remote tracking stations, 15 antennas, three data link terminals, one checkout facility, and two transportable tracking station antennas, as well as two operations control centers, and centralized scheduling and control of the network assets.
Range: Global coverage, all orbits
Coverage: Continuous global coverage
Capacity/Satellite: One satellite per tracking station antenna; more than 150 satellites supported; more than 160,000 contacts per year
Interoperability: Interoperable with Navy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), and national users.

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Quick Start Guide GPS Receiver Bluetooth Wireless

Tutorial Guide Setup InstructionsGPS Receiver Bluetooth Wireless

STEP 1: Charge the Battery

1.1. Charge the GPS Receiver. Unplug the rubber grip on the bottom right of the unit to expose the power jack. Connect a DC charger to a vehicle cigarette lighter, or connect an AC charger to an electrical outlet. As the device charges, the Battery Status LED will emit a solid amber light.

2.2. When the battery is more than 90% full, the LED will turn off. Unplug the device and remove the charger. A fully charged battery should provide roughly 9 hours of operation.

STEP 2: Turn on Receiver and Wait for GPS Fix

2.1. To obtain a GPS fix, you must be outdoors or in a vehicle, and the GPS Receiver must have a direct line of sight to the sky.

2.2. Turn on the GPS Receiver. Make sure the unit is right-side up, with the Socket logo facing the sky. Wait for the GPS Status LED to blink green, indicating that it has obtained a GPS fix.

STEP 4: Use GPS Application

4.1. Make sure your GPS software is compatible with the Socket GPS Receiver. The software must be able to use the COM port assigned to your mobile computer for outbound Bluetooth serial communications.

4.2. Load the GPS program plus any needed maps onto the mobile computer.

4.3. Start the program. Set it for the correct COM port for outbound Bluetooth serial communication. If needed, set the baud rate to 4800 bps.

4.4. Now you should be ready to use the program. Refer to the software user documentation. More configurations may be needed.

STEP 3: Connect to Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Computer

For specific Bluetooth connection instructions, refer to the documentation for your Bluetooth hardware and GPS software.

3.1. The Bluetooth Status LED should be emitting a solid blue light to show that the Bluetooth radio is on but not connected. From your mobile computer, perform a Bluetooth device discovery.

3.2. Pair and bond with the GPS Receiver. Enter the passkey 1234.

3.3. After the GPS Receiver and mobile computer have connected, the Bluetooth Status LED will blink blue.

3.4. Determine which COM port number your mobile computer is using for Bluetooth outbound serial communication. Refer to the user documentation for your Bluetooth hardware/software for instructions.

3.5. If you are using the Socket SDIO or CF Connection Kit with a Pocket PC, set the GPS Receiver as your Favorite COM Port. In the Bluetooth Devices folder, tap Tools | My Favorites | COM Port and select BTGPS.

STEP 3: Connect to Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Computer

For specific Bluetooth connection instructions, refer to the documentation for your Bluetooth hardware and GPS software.