Showing posts with label High Speed Internet. Show all posts
Showing posts with label High Speed Internet. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Linux from Online Sources, Via Mail Order and Slackware

1. Getting Linux from Other Online Sources

If you have access to another computer network such as CompuServe or Prodigy, there may be a means to download the Linux software from these sources. In addition, many bulletin board (BBS) systems carry Linux software. A list of Linux BBS sites is given in Appendix D. Not all Linux distributions are available from these computer networks, however—many of them, especially the various CD-ROM distributions, are only available via mail order.

2. Getting Linux via mail order

If you don’t have Internet or BBS access, many Linux distributions are available via mail order on diskette,
tape, or CD-ROM. Appendix B lists a number of these distributors. Many of them accept credit cards as well as international orders, so if you’re not in the United States or Canada you still should be able to obtain Linux in this way.

Linux is free software, although distributors are allowed by the GPL to charge a fee for it. Therefore, ordering Linux via mail order might cost you between US$30 and US$150, depending on the distribution. However, if you know someone who has already purchased or downloaded a release of Linux, you are free to borrow or copy their software for your own use. Linux distributors are not allowed to restrict the license or redistribution of the software in any way. If you are thinking about installing an entire lab of machines with Linux, for example, you only need to purchase a single copy of one of the distributions, which can be used to install all of the machines.

3. Getting Slackware

Slackware is a popular distribution of Linux maintained by Patrick Volkerding. It is easy to install and fairly
complete, and may be obtained both from the Internet as well as on CD-ROM from a number of vendors (see Appendix B).

The Slackware distribution consists of a number of “disk sets”, each one containing a particular type of software (for example, the d disk set contains development tools such as the gcc compiler, and the x disk set
contains the X Window System software). You can elect to install whatever disk sets you like, and can install
new ones later.

The version of Slackware described here is 2.0.0, of 25 June 1994. Installation of later versions of Slackware should be very similar to the information given here :

Slackware Disk Sets 

Unfortunately, Slackware does not maintain a complete list of diskspace requirements for each disk set. You need at least 7 megabytes to install just the “A” series of disks; a very rough estimate of the required diskspace would be 2 or 2.5 megabytes per disk.

The following disk sets are available:
A =  The base system. Enough to get up and running and have elvis and comm programs available. Based around the 1.0.9 Linux kernel, and the new filesystem standard (FSSTND). These disks are known to fit on 1.2M disks, although the rest of Slackware won’t. If you have only a 1.2M floppy, you can still install the base system, download other disks you want and install them from your hard drive.
AP =  Various applications and add ons, such as the manual pages, groff, ispell (GNU and international versions), term, joe, jove, ghostscript, sc, bc, and the quota patches.

D = Program development. GCC/G++/Objective C 2.5.8, make (GNU and BSD), byacc and GNU bison, flex, the 4.5.26 C libraries, gdb, kernel source for 1.0.9, SVGAlib, ncurses, clisp, f2c, p2c, m4, perl, rcs.
E = GNU Emacs 19.25.

F = A collection of FAQs and other documentation.

I = Info pages for GNU software. Documentation for various programs readable by info or Emacs.

N = Networking. TCP/IP, UUCP, mailx, dip, deliver, elm, pine, smail, cnews, nn, tin, trn.

O = OP Object Oriented Programming. GNU Smalltalk 1.1.1, and the Smalltalk Interface to X (STIX).

Q = Alpha kernel source and images (currently contains Linux 1.1.18).

TCL = Tcl, Tk, TclX, blt, itcl.

Y = Games. The BSD games collection, and Tetris for terminals.

X = The base XFree86 2.1.1 system, with libXpm, fvwm 1.20, and xlock added.

XAP = X applications: X11 ghostscript, libgr13, seyon, workman, xfilemanager, xv 3.01, GNU chess and xboard, xfm 1.2, ghostview, and various X games.

XD = X11 program development. X11 libraries, server linkkit, PEX support.

XV = Xview 3.2 release 5. XView libraries, and the Open Look virtual and non-virtual window managers.

IV = Interviews libraries, include files, and the doc and idraw apps.

OI = ParcPlace’s Object Builder 2.0 and Object Interface Library 4.0, generously made available for Linux developers according to the terms in the ”copying” notice found in these directories. Note that these only work with libc-4.4.4, but a new version may be released once gcc 2.5.9 is available.

T = The TEX and LATEX text formatting systems.

You must get the “A” disk set; the rest are optional. We suggest installing the A, AP, and D sets, as well as the X set if you plan to run the X Window System.

Posted by Titel Linux from Online Sources, Via Mail Order and Slackware

Continue : Slackware From Internet

Getting Linux from the Internet

Getting Starter Linux from the Internet

If you have access to the Internet, the easiest way to obtain Linux is via anonymous FTP.1 Appendix C lists a number of FTP archive sites which carry Linux software. One of these is, and the various Linux distributions can be found in the directory there.


Many distributions are released via anonymous FTP as a set of disk images. That is, the distribution consists of a set of files, and each file contains the binary image of a floppy. In order to copy the contents of the image file onto the floppy, you can use the RAWRITE.EXE program under MS-DOS. This program copies, block-for-block, the contents of a file to a floppy, without regard for disk format.

RAWRITE.EXE is available on the various Linux FTP sites, including in the directory


Therefore, in many cases, you simply download the set of diskette images, and use RAWRITE.EXE with each image in turn to create a set of diskettes. You boot from the so-called “boot diskette” and you’re ready to roll. The software is usually installed directly from the floppies, although some distributions allow you to install from an MS-DOS partition on your hard drive. Some distributions allow you to install over a TCP/IP network. The documentation for each distribution should describe these installation methods if they are available.
Other Linux distributions are installed from a set ofMS-DOS format floppies. For example, the Slackware
distribution of Linux requires only the boot and root diskettes to be created using RAWRITE.EXE. The rest of the diskettes are copied toMS-DOS format diskettes using theMS-DOS COPY command. The system installs the software directly from theMS-DOS floppies. This saves you the trouble of having to use RAWRITE.EXE
for many image files, although it requires you to have access to an MS-DOS system to create the diskettes.
 Each distribution of Linux available via anonymous FTP should include a README file describing how
to download and prepare the diskettes for installation. Be sure to read all of the available documentation for
the release that you are using.

When downloading the Linux software, be sure to use binary mode for all file transfers (with most FTP clients, the command “binary” enables this mode).


1 If you do not have direct Internet access, you can obtain Linux via the ftpmail service, provided that you have the ability to exchange e-mail with the Internet. See Appendix C for details.

2 If you have access to a UNIX workstation with a floppy drive, you can also use the dd command to copy the file image directly to the floppy. A command such as “dd of=/dev/rfd0 if=foo bs=18k” will “raw write” the contents of the file foo to the floppy device on a Sun workstation. Consult your local UNIX gurus for more information on your system’s floppy devices and the use of dd.

Linux Slackware From Internet

Getting Slackware from the Internet

The Slackware release of Linux may be found on any number of FTP sites worldwide. Appendix C lists several of the Linux FTP sites; we suggest that you try to find the software on the FTP site nearest you, to reduce net traffic. However, two of the major Linux FTP archives are and

The Slackware release may be found at least on the following sites:



• is Slackware’s home site.

Downloading the files You should download the following files using FTP. Be sure to use binary mode when transferring. Appendix C contains a complete tutorial on using FTP.

• The various README files, as well as SLACKWARE FAQ. Be sure to read these files before attempting to install the software, to get any updates or changes to this document.

• A bootdisk image. This is a file that you will write to a floppy to create the Slackware boot disk. If you have a 1.44 megabyte boot floppy (3.5"), look in the directory bootdsks.144. If you have a 1.2 megabyte boot floppy (5.25"), look in the directory bootdsks.12. You need one of the following bootdisk files.

You need one of the following bootdisk files.

– bare.gz. This is a boot floppy that has only IDE hard drive drivers. (No SCSI, CD-ROM, or
networking support.) Use this if you only have an IDE hard drive controller and aren’t going to
be installing over the network or from CD-ROM.

– cdu31a.gz. Contains IDE, SCSI, and the Sony CDU31A/33A driver.

– mitsumi.gz. Contains IDE, SCSI, and the Mitsumi CD-ROM driver.

– modern.gz. An experimental boot disk with a newer kernel, and all drivers except those for network cards and the Sony 535 CD-ROM.

– net.gz. Contains IDE and network drivers.

– sbpcd.gz. Contains IDE, SCSI, and SoundBlaster Pro/Panasonic CD-ROM drivers.

– scsi.gz. Contains IDE, SCSI, and SCSI CD-ROM drivers.

– scsinet.gz. Contains IDE, SCSI, SCSI CD-ROM, and network drivers.

– sony535.gz. Contains IDE, SCSI, and Sony 535/531 CD-ROM drivers.

– xt.gz. Contains IDE and XT hard drive drivers.

You need only one of the above bootdisk images, depending on the hardware that you have in your system.

The issue here is that some hardware drivers conflict with each other in strange ways, and instead of attempting to debug hardware problems on your system it’s easier to use a boot floppy image with only certain drivers enabled. Most users should try scsi.gz or bare.gz.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

New Program High-Speed Network for Naval Vessels

Atlas Elektronik, Tesat Spacecom and Synopta have signe an agreement for the joint development of a high-speed data network that will enable naval vessels to interconnect their combat systems and, for example, exchange large quantities of reconnaissance data in real time. As a result, forces on missions will be able to update their tactical situation pictures continuously and without any time lag, enabling them to respond to immediate threats. The new capability will enhance the security of the ships and their crews considerably.

Under the terms of the agreement the three partners are implementing innovative hybrid technology in that a radio connection with a very high bandwidth is supplemented by an integrated optical link of extremely broad bandwidth. This hybrid connection is available during all weather conditions and forms the backbone of the high-speed link. Besides transmission speed, the focus of development is on reliability. The system is being designed for reliable and automatic operation on naval vessels and for easy integration on board.

The first systems capable of interconnecting ships within a particular operational area will already be rolled out this year. In the second phase, a satellite network will be used to connect vessels beyond the boundaries of their operational area, even globally. Atlas Elektronik, Tesat-Spacecom and Synopta will also team up for this phase. The foremost objective of these activities is to provide new capabilities for maritime systems in the sense of true “network centric warfare”.

Saturday, November 13, 2010

How To Cope With And Check The Internet Conection Is Slow

Before You Start The Steps And Tricks to Speed Up Internet Connection
Check Self Installation Troubleshooting
1. Computer does not meet minimum system requirements :

- The Install Wizard verifies minimum system requirements on your computer, including hard-drive space, RAM,
operating system level and processor speed before it will begin installation.

- Solution : Update your computer to the required minimum system requirements. The Install Wizard will list the necessary upgrades for your computer to operate with Comcast High-Speed Internet.

2. Incompatible network adapter :

- May occur when an Ethernet adapter (NIC) was installed previously in the computer, but the physical device is missing.

- Solution : Click the Fix button on your error screen to launch the appropriate system control panel along with context-sensitive help.

3. Disabled network adapter

- May occur when an Ethernet adapter (NIC) is present in the system, but the adapter has been disabled.

- Solution : Use the Fix button on your error screen with context-sensitive help to guide you through enabling the adapter

4. Unknown network adapter

- May occur if an Ethernet adapter (NIC) is physically present and detected, but no drivers were installed. Windows will add this device to the “Other Devices” section in the Device Manager.

- Solution : Use the Fix button on your error screen to launch the appropriate control panel to guide you through removing the “Unknown Device.” You may have to reinstall the adapter.

5. Undetected network adapterYour Ethernet adapter (NIC) has been

- installed incorrectly. Windows was not able to establish Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) with the adapter.

- Solution : Install Wizard fails to detect a properly configured adapter.

6. Missing Internet protocol 
- This scenario can occur if your Ethernet adapter (NIC) is not bound to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

- Solution : Use the Fix button on your error screen to launch the appropriate control panel to guide you in binding TCP/IP to the network adapter.

7. Configure TCP/ IP failure

- During testing of TCP/IP configuration, there is an error. Failure during this step can result from the Ethernet cable not being plugged in and from the cable modem not being synchronized.

- Solution : Make sure your Ethernet cable is plugged in; unplug your cable modem from the electrical outlet for 2 minutes, then plug it back in. It will take 5 to 10 minutes for the modem to reestablish connection with the network.

8. DNS test error

-  The DNS test error is a server failure to interpret Internet Protocol correctly.

- Click the Retry button on the bottom of the screen. If Retry does not resolve the error, call customer service

9. Console-only device

- You have problems connecting a gaming device to the high-speed Internet service.

- If you need to connect more than 2 computers/devices to the Internet.

10. Installation stalled

- The installation may stall if other applications are running on your computer.

- Check that all applications, including firewalls, are shut down.


Installing Your Hardware and Software  for Trick High Speed Internet :

 Step 1: Connect the Cable Modem
Connect the cable line from the wall outlet to your cable modem.

Step 2: Connect the Ethernet Cable or Install the Ethernet NIC

1. Turn off your computer and unplug it from the electrical outlet.
2. Unplug any peripheral devices (printer, monitor, keyboard, etc.) from the computer.
3. Follow the installation instructions that were shipped with your Ethernet NIC.
4. Make sure the coaxial cable is connected to the cable modem.
5. Plug the power source into a grounded, surge-protected outlet. If the cable modem has a power button, turn it on.
6. Plug one end of the Ethernet cable into the port on the Ethernet NIC.
7. Connect the other end of the Ethernet cable to the Ethernet jack on the back of the cable modem.

Step 3: Run Installation Software

Comcast High-Speed Internet Installation Wizard is a step-by-step program that makes sure your computer
is ready for high-speed Internet and helps you set up your email account. The Installation Wizard should take
about 15 minutes.

1. Launch a web browser and follow the onscreen instructions to download the installation software.

2. Once the download is complete, you must run the installation software. You will be prompted to answer
questions and then install according to your responses.

3. During the installation process, you will be asked to accept the software license agreement and the
Comcast Agreement for Residential Services.

4. You will then choose a username. You will need this username for access to both email and the
Web site. For example, if you were to choose the username “sample,” your email address would be
sample, and you would log in to with the username “sample.”

5. Windows users will need to download additional features to complete the installation.

Having Trouble Connecting to the Internet?
There are a couple of quick things you can try to restore your connection:

Check Your Power and Connections

Make sure any power strips you have connected to your equipment are on and that you have not lost power
to your computer. Test to be sure that your coaxial cable is tightly connected both to your wall plate and to
your computer. Also, check to make sure your Ethernet cable is secured to both your computer and your
cable modem.

“Power Cycle” Your Cable Modem

• This is a simple reset of your modem that often will restore connectivity. To perform a power cycle
of the modem, unplug your cable modem from the electrical outlet. You can unplug it from the wall
or the back of the modem, but be sure to leave it unplugged for 2 minutes; after 2 minutes, plug the
power cord back into the modem. Wait for the modem to regain its connection (this may take up to
5 minutes and you will see the lights on your modem come back on during this process). Ensure the
cable lights on the modem are steady, then test the connection by trying several sites on the Web.

• If you have an eMTA (if you have Comcast Digital Voice® service, you will have this unique cable modem),
you can perform the same function by using the ‘reset’ button located on the back of the unit. Using a
pen, paper clip or other pointed object, press the reset button until you see the lights go off on the front
of the unit. Release the reset button and wait for the unit to cycle. Follow the same steps above to check

Check for Network Issues

If you have a router or network device connected to your modem, try connecting the Ethernet cable directly
to your computer instead of to the network equipment. If this restores your connection, the issue is likely with
your router or configuration.

Restart Your Computer

Friday, October 29, 2010

Procedure Installing Linux Software

After you have resized your existing partitions to make space for Linux, you are ready to install the software. Here is a brief overview of the procedure:

- Boot the Linux installation media

- Run fdisk under Linux to create Linux partitions

- Install the Linux software

- Finally, either install the LILO boot loader on your hard drive, or create a boot floppy in order to boot your new Linux system.

As we have said, one (or more) of these steps may be automated for you by the installation procedure, depending on the distribution of Linux which you are using. Please consult the documentation for your distribution for specific instructions.

Procedure Booting Linux :

The first step is to boot the Linux installation media. In most cases, this is a “boot floppy” which contains a
small Linux system. Upon booting the floppy, you will be presented with an installation menu of some kind
which will lead you through the steps of installing the software. On other distributions, you will be presented
with a login prompt when booting this floppy. Here, you usually login as root or install to begin the installation process.

The documentation which came with your particular distribution will explain what is necessary to boot Linux from the installation media. If you are installing the Slackware distribution of Linux, all that is required is to boot the boot floppy which you created in the previous section. Most distributions of Linux use a boot floppy which allows you to enter hardware parameters at a boot prompt, to force hardware detection of various devices.

For example, if your SCSI controller is not detected when booting the floppy, you will need to reboot and specify the hardware parameters (such as I/O address and IRQ) at the boot prompt.

Likewise, IBM PS/1, ThinkPad, and ValuePoint machines do not store drive geometry in the CMOS, and
you must specify it at boot time.

The boot prompt is often displayed automatically when booting the boot floppy. This is the case for the Slackware distribution. Other distributions require you to hold down shift or ctrl while booting the floppy. If successful, you should see the prompt The first step is to boot the Linux installation media.

In most cases, this is a “boot floppy” which contains a small Linux system. Upon booting the floppy, you will be presented with an installation menu of some kind which will lead you through the steps of installing the software. On other distributions, you will be presented with a login prompt when booting this floppy. Here, you usually login as root or install to begin the installation process.

The documentation which came with your particular distribution will explain what is necessary to boot
Linux from the installation media. If you are installing the Slackware distribution of Linux, all that is required is to boot the boot floppy which you created in the previous section.

Most distributions of Linux use a boot floppy which allows you to enter hardware parameters at a boot
prompt, to force hardware detection of various devices. For example, if your SCSI controller is not detected
when booting the floppy, you will need to reboot and specify the hardware parameters (such as I/O address
and IRQ) at the boot prompt :

a. boot:
and possibly other messages. To try booting without any special parameters, just press enter at the boot prompt. Watch the messages as the system boots. If you have a SCSI controller, you should see a listing of the SCSI hosts detected. If you see the message.

b. SCSI: 0 hosts

Then your SCSI controller was not detected, and you will have to use the following procedure. Also, the system will display information on the drive partitions and devices detected. If any of this information is incorrect or missing, you will have to force hardware detection. On the other hand, if all goes well and you hardware seems to be detected, you can skip to the following section, To force hardware detection, you must enter the appropriate parameters at the boot prompt, using the following syntax:

d. ramdisk hparameters
There are a number of such parameters available; here are some of the most common.

f. hd=hcylindersi,hheadsi,hsectorsi

Specify the harddrive geometry. Required for systems such as the IBM PS/1, ValuePoint, and ThinkPad. For example, if your drive has 683 cylinders, 16 heads, and 32 sectors per track, enter ramdisk hd=683,16,32

tmc8xx= (memaddr), (irq)
Specify address and IRQ for BIOS-less Future Domain TMC-8xx SCSI controller. For example,

ramdisk tmc8xx=0xca000,5
Note that the 0x prefix must be used for all values given in hexadecimal. This is true for all of the following options.

st0x = (hmemaddr), (irq)
Specify address and IRQ for BIOS-less Seagate ST02 controller.

t128=(memaddri), (irq)
Specify address and IRQ for BIOS-less Trantor T128B controller

ncr5380= (port), (irq),hdmai Specify port, IRQ, and DMA channel for generic NCR5380 controller.

aha152x=(port), (irq),(scsi_ id),1
Specify port, IRQ, and SCSI ID for BIOS-less AIC-6260 controllers. This includes Adaptec 1510, 152x, and Soundblaster-SCSI controllers.

For each of these, you must enter ramdisk followed by the parameter that you wish to use. If you have questions about these boot-time options, please read the Linux SCSI HOWTO, which should be available on any Linux FTP archive site (or from wherever you obtained this book), as well as the Linux CD-ROM HOWTO.

In order to more clearly see the previous article

Preparing And Procedure To Installation Linux

After you have obtained a distribution of Linux, you’re ready to prepare your system for installation. This takes a certain degree of planning, especially if you’re already running other operating systems. In the following sections we’ll describe how to plan for the Linux installation.

Preparing to Install Linux :

1. Installation overview

While each release of Linux is different, in general the method used to install the software is as follows:

a. Repartition your hard drive(s). If you have other operating systems already installed, you will need to repartition the drives in order to allocate space for Linux.

b. Boot the Linux installation media. Each distribution of Linux has some kind of installation media usually a “boot floppy” which is used to install the software. Booting this media will either present you with some kind of installation program, which will step you through the Linux installation, or allow you to install the software by hand.

c. Create Linux partitions. After repartitioning to allocate space for Linux, you create Linux partitionson that empty space. This is accomplished with the Linux fdisk program.

d. Create filesystems and swap space. At this point, you will create one or more filesystems, used to store files, on the newly-created partitions. In addition, if you plan to use swap space, you will create the swap space on one of your Linux partitions.

e. Install the software on the new filesystems. Finally, you will install the Linux software on your newly created filesystems. After this, it’s smooth sailing if all goes well.

Many distributions of Linux provide an installation program which will step you through the installation process, and automate one or more of the above steps for you. Keep in mind throughout this chapter that any
number of the above steps may be automated for you, depending on the distribution.

The Slackware distribution of Linux, covered in this book, only requires you to repartition your drive, using fdisk, and use the setup program to accomplish the other steps. Important hint: While preparing to install Linux, the best advice that we can give is to take notes during the entire procedure. Write down everything that you do, everything that you type, and everything that you see that might be out of the ordinary.

The idea here is simple: if (or when!) you run into trouble, you want to be able to retrace your steps and find out what went wrong. Installing Linux isn’t difficult, but there are many details to remember. You want to have a record of all of these details so that you can experiment with other methods if something goes wrong. Also, keeping a notebook of your Linux installation experience is useful when you want to ask other people for help, for example, when posting a message to one of the Linux-related USENET groups.

2. Repartitioning Concepts

Hard drives are divided into partitions, where a single partition is devoted to a single operating system. For example, on one hard drive, you may have several separate partitions one devoted to, say, MS-DOS, another to OS/2, and another to Linux.

If you already have other software installed on your system, you may need to resize those partitions in order to free up space for Linux. You will then create one or more Linux partitions on the resulting free space for storing the Linux software and swap space. We call this process repartitioning.

Many MS-DOS systems utilize a single partition inhabiting the entire drive. To MS-DOS, this partition is
known as C:. If you have more than one partition, MS-DOS names them D:, E:, and so on. In a way, each
partition acts like a separate hard drive.On the first sector of the disk is a master boot record along with a partition table. The boot record (as the name implies) is used to boot the system. The partition table contains information about the locations and sizes of your partitions.

There are three kinds of partitions: primary, extended, and logical. Of these, primary partitions are used most often. However, because of a limit in the size of the partition table, you can only have four primary partitions on any given drive.

The way around this four-partition limit is to use an extended partition. An extended partition doesn’t hold any data by itself; instead, it acts as a “container” for logical partitions. Therefore, you could create one extended partition, covering the entire drive, and within it create many logical partitions. However, you may have only one extended partition per drive.

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